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Free and Sovereign State of Baja California

Anna's Hummingbird Calypte anna ©Don Des Jardin Website

Baja California, properly called Lower California in English, is the northernmost state of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1953, the area was known as the 'Northern Territory of Baja California'. It has an area of 71,576 km2 (27,636 sq mi), or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico and comprises the northern half of the Baja California peninsula, north of the 28th parallel. The state is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Sonora, the U.S. State of Arizona, and the Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez), and on the south by Baja California Sur. Its northern limit is the U.S. state of California.

Baja California is the twelfth state by area in Mexico. Its geography ranks from beaches to forests and deserts. The backbone of the state is the Sierra de Baja California; where the Picacho Del Diablo, the highest point of the peninsula, is located. This mountain range effectively divides the weather patterns in the state. In the northwest, the weather is semi-dry, mediterranean. In the narrow center, the weather changes to be more humid due to altitude. It is in this area where a few valleys can be found, such as the Valle de Guadalupe, the major wine producer area in Mexico. To the east of the mountain range, the Sonoran Desert dominates the landscape. In the south, the weather becomes drier and gives place to the Vizcaino Desert. The state is also home to numerous islands in both of its shores. In fact, the westernmost point in Mexico, the Guadalupe Island, is part of Baja California. The Coronado, Todos Santos and Cedros Islands are also on the Pacific Shore. On the Gulf of California, the biggest island is the Angel De La Guarda, separated from the peninsula by the deep and narrow Canal de Ballenas.

The flora of Baja California are strongly related to those of Southern coastal California. Common trees are the Jeffrey Pine, Sugar Pine and Pinon Pine. Understory species include Manzanita. Fauna include a variety of reptiles including the Western fence lizard, which is at the southern extent of its range.

Baja California has two sea shores. It borders the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Gulf of California to the east. Even though the state is not large in area, its geography is very diverse. The Sierra de Baja California (also known as the Peninsular Ranges) runs in the middle of the state with different denominations. The two most important are the Sierra de Juarez and the Sierra de San Pedro Martir. These ranges are home to forests similar to those in Southern California.

The Picacho del Diablo is the highest peak in the whole peninsula, offering spectacular views of the Gulf of California. Lying in between these mountain ranges, there are some valleys that are suitable for agriculture such as the Valle de Guadalupe and the Valle de Ojos Negros. The mild weather makes this area excellent for the production of citrus fruits and grapes. This area is also rich in minerals. The mountain range gets closer to the Gulf of California towards the south of the state and the western slope becomes wider, forming the Llanos del Berrendo in the border with Baja California Sur.

The cool winds from the Pacific Ocean and the cold California Current make the weather along the northwestern coast pleasant year round. The coastal cities of Playas de Rosarito and Ensenada have the one of the nicest weather patterns in the whole Mexico. But due to the California current, rains from the north barely reach the peninsula and this makes the weather drier towards the south. The area becomes a desert south of El Rosario River. This desert, however, is rich in succulents such as the Cardon, Boojum tree, Ocotillo and others. These plants can flourish in part due to the coastal fog. Driving along MX-1 provides a good view of this area.

There are numerous islands on the Pacific shore. Guadalupe Island is the remote outpost to the west and it is home to big colonies of sea lions. In Cedros Island there is a small community living mostly on fishing. The Todos Santos Islands, in front of Ensenada, are popular with surfers offering some of the highest waves worldwide.

To the east, the Sonoran Desert enters the state from both California and Sonora. Some of the highest temperatures in Mexico are recorded in or nearby the Mexicali Valley in the northeast. However, with irrigation from the Colorado River, this area has become truly an agricultural center. The Cerro Prieto geothermical province is nearby Mexicali as well; producing about 80% of the electricity consumed in the state and enough more to export to California. The Laguna Salada, a saline lake below the sea level lying in between the rugged Sierra de Juarez and the Sierra de los Cucapah, is also in the vicinity of Mexicali. The highest mountain in the Sierra de los Cucapah is the Cerro del Centinela or Mount Signal.

The state is also blessed with numerous beaches on its east coast. Fishing and touristic towns such as San Felipe and Bahia de Los Angeles are a major attraction for people in search of adventure, nice beaches and fresh fish. The area south of San Felipe is basically undeveloped and pristine beaches can be found in many bays. All of the islands in the Gulf of California, on the Baja California side, belong to the municipality of Mexicali.

The main source of water in the state are the Colorado River, which empties in the Gulf of California, and the Tijuana River, serving the cities of Mexicali and Tijuana. The rest of the state depends mostly on wells and a few dams.



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Number of Species

Number of bird species: 513


Number of endemics: 6

Cape Pygmy Owl, Xantus's Hummingbird, Gray Thrasher, Belding's Yellowthroat, Baird's Junco, and San Lucas Robin. Other potential future splits in Baja may include LeConte's Thrasher (Vizcaino Thrasher), White-breasted Nuthatch, and Acorn Woodpecker.

Useful Reading

Birds of the Baja California Peninsula: Status, Distribution, and Taxonomy

Article from: Wilson Bulletin Article date: June 1, 2005

Birds We See See

See: http://birdswesee.com/ for details…

Fieldguides, CDs etc.

For a selection of appropriate fieldguides and CDs etc see the general Mexico page of Fatbirder…


Guadalupe Island Restoration Project


…The most ecologically rich of these islands is Guadalupe. This 100 square mile island is home to more than 34 endemic plants, 7 extant endemic bird species or subspecies, 8 breeding seabirds and more than 29 endemic invertebrates…


Abbreviations Key: See the appropriate Continent Page (or Country Page of those used on country sub-divisions)

1857 Constitution National Park

Facebook Page

Satellite View

The 185 Constitution National Park is in the Sierra de Juárez, mountain range, approximately 45 miles east of Ensenada. Within its 5,009 hectares (12,400 acres); is one of interior Baja California's few semi-permanent bodies of water, Laguna Hanson…

Parques Nacionales de Baja California


In Spannish

Guides & Tour Operators

Click on WAND for tours, guides, lodges and more…

Birding Los Cabos

Tour Operator

Los Cabos is home of 3 endemics and more than 100 other migrants and resident birds for you to enjoy, you can experience all of these in only 1/2 a day tour. add the endemic yellow footed gull making a day tour. We are locals , have more than 20 years experience in tours and programs, active learning, tourism and recreation by putting people in touch with Natural and Cultural heritage.

Cedros Outdoor

Tour Operator

Few know that the San Benitos islands not only have a few endemic species of terrestrial birds, but that they are nesting grounds of more than 2 million seabirds of 10 species…

Trip Reports

Click on WAND for tours, guides, lodges and more…


Trip Report Repository

CloudBirders was created by a group of Belgian world birding enthusiasts and went live on 21st of March 2013. They provide a large and growing database of birding trip reports, complemented with extensive search, voting and statistical features.

2012 [04 April] - Wildwings

Report PDF

…Some great birds are on offer too, with range-restricted species possible including Guadalupe and Scripp’s Murrelets (both formally known as Xantu’s Murrelet, but split in 2012) plus Craveri’s Murrelet, Black-vented and Townsend’s Shearwaters, Black and Least Storm-Petrels, Grey Thrasher and Xantu’s Hummingbird. Belding’s Yellowthroat is also possible prior to departure from Cabo on the last morning…

2014 [03 March] - Michael O'Brien

PDF Report

…The first phase of our cruise took place on the Pacific side of the Baja peninsula around Bahia Magdalena and Boca de Soledad. The beaches are beautiful here, and tidal flats are full of wading birds such as Reddish Egret, Long-billed Curlew, Whimbrel, Marbled Godwit, and Willet….

2015 [03 March] - David Wimpfheimer & Scot Anderson - Baja California & The Sea of Cortez

Report PDF

...As we left the island, we spotted five Brown Boobies sitting with some Brandt’s Cormorant on a rock at the south end of the island. Most years we don’t see any this far north. Their presence here is possibly indicative of an upcoming El Nino condition.

2015 [04 April] - Mark Van Beirs

Report PDF

...The birds, for once, played a more modest role, but we still saw a splendid variety of specialities that included Black-footed Albatross, hundreds of Black-vented Shearwaters, Black and diminutive Least Storm Petrels, Western Grebe, Red-billed Tropicbird, Blue-footed Booby, Ridgway’s Rail, Red and Red-necked Phalaropes, Sabine’s, Heermann’s and Yellow-footed Gulls, Elegant Tern, Pomarine and Long-tailed Skuas and Scripp’s and much-wanted Craveri’s Murrelets, while walks in the semi desert gave us Grey Thrasher, California Gnatcatcher, Large-billed Savanna Sparrow and Pyrrhuloxia.

2016 [03 March] - David Wimpfheimer - Baja California & Cortez Sea

PDF Report

Most of the group arrived from the United Kingdom the previous evening and were happy to arrive in warm and sunny San Diego. Today a small group joined David Wimpfheimer for a birding tour in the varied habitats of San Diego and nearby regions. A low tide at the mouth of the San Diego River showed us many waders including Marbled Godwit, Willet and Long-billed Curlew. A group of over seventy Black Skimmers was noteworthy and the very close Blue-winged and Cinnamon Teal were wonderful for the photographers....

2016 [04 April] - Kathie Claydon - Southern California, Baja and Panama


...an 11-night voyage down the Pacific coast of Baja peninsula and into the Sea of Cortez.

2017 [03 March] - David Wimpfheimer & Scot Anderson - Baja California & The Sea of Cortez

PDF Report

...We saw the near endemic California Thrasher and Wrentit as well as Nuttall’s Woodpecker and a stunning White-tailed Kite that circle close above the group. Santee Lakes was a great lunch spot, but also provided close views of Great-tailed Grackle, Wood and Ring-necked Ducks....


Birds We See


We have become avid birders and our birding mainly takes place in Baja California Sur, Mexico and the great Pacific Northwest. But we are not stopping there! We now have intentions of traveling the USA in our Chevrolet (Winnebago) and bringing you our nature photos, birds eye views; posting and comments and books on birding and nature, which the first of these has just been released…

Other Links

Aves de Baja California


A site to learn and share information about the wild birds of Baja California peninsula...

Baja Birding


Locations, reports, sightings etc…

Endemic Birds of Baja California


Baja California is home to six endemic birds. Although many of the North American Birds can be found in Baja California there are six birds that can be found only in Baja. These Birds are the Cape Pygmy Owl (see it on its multimedia owl page); Xantus`s Hummingbird, Gray Thrasher, Belding`s Yellowthroat, Baird`s Junco, and Cape Robin. Other potential future splits in Baja may include LeConte`s Thrasher (Vizcaino Thrasher); White-breasted Nuthatch, and Acorn Woodpecker. Here you will find photos and information on each of the endemics…