Free and Sovereign State of Querétaro de Arteaga
Querétaro (former formal name: Querétaro Arteaga) is a state in central Mexico. Its capital is the city of Santiago de Querétaro, although in general parlance the name "Querétaro" is used for both the city and the state.
Querétaro is bordered to the north by the state of San Luis Potosí, to the west by Guanajuato, to the east by Hidalgo, to the southeast by Mexico State, and to the southwest by Michoacán. The capital city of Santiago de Querétaro is located some 257 kilometres (160 miles) to the northwest of Mexico City.
The state is located between northern parallels 20° 01' 02" and 21° 40' and western meridians 99° 03' 23" y 100° 36'. The surface area is 11,687.69 square kilometres (4,512.64 square miles), 0.6% of Mexico and it is ranked as the 27th (out of 32) largest state.
The state is heavily mountainous, notably in the Sierra Gorda and the Sierra Queretana, part of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The area between the two (the Valleys and the Semidesierto) is composed of numerous valleys and usually low peaks. However, the highest peak is the Cerro del Zamorano at 3,360 metres (11,024 feet) above sea level in the Valley of Querétaro. Other notable peaks include Cerro El Espolón at 3,240 metres (10,630 ft), Cerro La Pingüica at 3,160 metres (10,367 ft), and Cerro de la Vega at 3,120 metres (10,236 ft).
There is a wide array of climates, mainly due to elevation. Following the Köppen climate classification, there are nine climate types, the most widespread being semiarid and temperate (BS1k), covering 39.53% of the state's surface.
Querétaro can be divided into five or four regions, depending on criteria used. These are two central valleys (Valle de Querétaro and Valle de San Juan), the arid Semidesierto, and two mountainous regions: the Sierra Gorda and the Sierra Queretana.
Valle de San Juan: Amealco de Bonfil, Ezequiel Montes, Pedro Escobedo, San Juan del Río, and Tequisquiapan. It is an extremely fertile valley, with abundant water resources (both surface and underground). It can be considered the state's breadbasket.
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