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Regulidae - Goldcrests & Kinglets

Firecrest
Firecrest Regulus ignicapillus ©Francesco Veronesi (Creative Commons) Website

The kinglets, or 'crests', are a small bird in a passerine group that is sometimes included in the Old World warblers, but is more recently frequently placed in its own family, Regulidae. 'Regulidae' is derived from the Latin word regulus for 'petty king' or prince, and refers to the coloured crowns of adult birds. This family has representatives in North America and Eurasia. There are just six species in this family; one, the Madeira Firecrest Regulus madeirensis was only recently split from common firecrest as a separate species.

Kinglets are among the smallest of all passerines, ranging in size from 8–11 cm and weighing 6–8gm; the sexes are the same size. They have medium-length wings and tails, and small needle-like bills. The plumage is overall grey-green, offset by pale wingbars, and the tail tip is incised. Five species have a single stiff feather covering the nostrils, but in the Ruby-crowned Kinglet, this is replaced by several short, stiff bristles. Most kinglets have distinctive head markings, and the males possess a colourful crown patch. In the females, the crown is duller and yellower. The long feathers forming the central crown stripe can be erected; they are inconspicuous most of the time, but are used in courtship and territorial displays when the raised crest is very striking.

Kinglets are birds of the Nearctic and Palearctic ecozones, with representatives in temperate North America, Europe and Asia, northernmost Africa, Macaronesia and the Himalayas. They are adapted to conifer forests, although there is a certain amount of adaptability and most species will use other habitats, particularly during migration. In Macaronesia, they are adapted to laurisilva and tree heaths.

There are two species in North America with largely overlapping distributions, and two in Eurasia which also have a considerable shared range. In each continent, one species (Goldcrest in Eurasia and Golden-crowned kinglet in North America) is a conifer specialist; these have deeply grooved pads on their feet for perching on conifer twigs, and a long hind toe and claw for clinging vertically. The two generalists, Ruby-crowned Kinglet and Common Firecrest hunt more in flight, and have smoother soles, shorter hind claws and a longer tail.

The tiny size and rapid metabolism of kinglets means that they must constantly forage in order to provide their energy needs. They will continue feeding even when nest building. Kinglets prevented from feeding may lose a third of their body weight in twenty minutes and may starve to death in an hour. Kinglets are insectivores, preferentially feeding on insects such as aphids and springtails that have soft cuticles. Prey is generally gleaned from the branches and leaves of trees, although in some circumstances prey may be taken on the wing or from the leaf litter on the ground.

The nest are small, very neat cups, almost spherical in shape, made of moss and lichen held together with spiderwebs and hung from twigs near the end of a high branch of a conifer. They are lined with hair and feathers, and a few feathers are placed over the opening. These characteristics provide good insulation against the cold environment. The female lays 7 to 12 eggs, which are white or pale buff, some having fine dark brown spots. Because the nest is small, they are stacked in layers. The female incubates; she pushes her legs (which are well supplied with blood vessels, hence warm) down among the eggs. A unique feature of kinglets is the 'size hierarchy' among eggs, with early-laid eggs being smaller than later ones. Eggs hatch asynchronously after 15 to 17 days. The young stay in the nest for 19 to 24 days. After being fed, nestlings make their way down to the bottom of the nest, pushing their still-hungry siblings up to be fed in their turn (but also to be cold).

Kinglets are the most fecund and shortest-living of all altricial birds, and probably the shortest-lived apart from a few smaller galliform species. Adult mortality for the Goldcrest is estimated at over 80 percent per year and the maximum lifespan is only six years

They are:

Firecrest Regulus ignicapillus
Flamecrest Regulus goodfellowi
Madeiracrest Regulus madeirensis
Goldcrest Regulus regulus
Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa
Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula

Family Links

Kinglets Regulidae

Family Account

The Kinglets are a small family of very small arboreal birds in the Northern Hemisphere. Whether these tiny sprites deserve family status is a matter of some debate (see below); but they are rather easy to recognize as a group: tiny, flitty, insect-gleaners of coniferous forests, all having a colorful crown pattern. The common & widespread example in North America is the Ruby-crowned Kinglet (left and below) which leaves its summer home in coniferous forests to spread widely in all sorts of woodlands in the lowlands for winter…

Kinglets Regulidae

Family Account

Fact index…

Kinglets Regulidae

Cornell Family Account

Links to American species…

Kinglets Regulidae

HBW Family Account

The position of the genus Regulus in the avian system has a chequered history, which is due to the fact that the kinglets and goldcrests exhibit external morphological similarities to several passerine families.

Kinglets Regulidae

Family Account

Kinglets are among the smallest of all passerines, ranging in size from 8–11 cm (3–4.5 in) and weighing 6–8 g (0.21–0.28 oz); the sexes are the same size.

Species Links

Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula

Cornell Species Account

One of North America's smallest birds, the Ruby-crowned Kinglet can be recognized by its constant wing-flicking. The male shows its red crown only infrequently…

Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula

Species Account

Ruby-crowned Kinglets are tiny, active, olive-green to gray songbirds. Their wings are dark, with two white wing-bars. There is a black smudge below the second wing-bar, which is a field mark useful in distinguishing a Ruby-crowned Kinglet from the similar-appearing Hutton's Vireo…

Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula

Species Account

Sound archive and distribution map

Madeiracrest Regulus madeirensis

Species Account

The Madeira firecrest, Madeira kinglet, or Madeiracrest (Regulus madeirensis) is a very small passerine bird endemic to the island of Madeira.

Madeiracrest Regulus madeirensis

Species Account

An endemic species of Madeira easily identified by its orange crown stripe. It has a dark face with a white supercilium stripe that does not extend beyond the eye and a white contour line below the eye.

Madeiracrest Regulus madeirensis

BirdLife Species Account

Madeiracrest Regulus madeirensis

Species Account

Sound archive and distribution map.

Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula

Species Account

The ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula) is a very small passerine bird found throughout North America.

Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula

BirdLife Species Account

Firecrest Regulus ignicapillus

Species Account

The common firecrest (Regulus ignicapilla) also known as the firecrest, is a very small passerine bird in the kinglet family.

Firecrest Regulus ignicapillus

BirdLife Species Account

Firecrest Regulus ignicapillus

HBW Species Account

Taxonomy: Sylvia ignicapilla Temminck, 1820, France, Belgium, Germany, etc. Traditionally treated as conspecific with R. madeirensis, but recent studies indicate strong morphological, vocal and genetic differences; genetic divergence level between the two comparable to that between R. satrapa and R. regulus. Race teneriffae of last-mentioned has sometimes been included within present species. Geographical variation only slight; N African birds described as race laeneni, but considered indistinguishable from and thus synonymized with balearicus. Species name often listed as ignicapillus, but original name is a noun phrase and is thus indeclinable. Four subspecies recognized.

Firecrest Regulus ignicapillus

Species Account

Sound archive and distribution map.

Flamecrest Regulus goodfellowi

BirdLife Species Account

Flamecrest Regulus goodfellowi

Species Account

The flamecrest or Taiwan firecrest (Regulus goodfellowi) is a species of bird in the kinglet family, Regulidae, that is endemic to the mountains of the island of Taiwan.

Flamecrest Regulus goodfellowi

HBW Species Account

Taxonomy: Regulus goodfellowi Ogilvie-Grant, 1906, Mount Morrison, 9000-10,000 feet [c. 2750-3050 m], central Taiwan. Relationships uncertain. Often treated as close relative of R. ignicapilla owing to similarities in head pattern and plumage coloration; zoogeographical factors, however, suggest that this species and R. regulus may be descended from a common ancestor with radiation presumably originating in E Asia; both mitochondrial DNA and song support also close relationship with R. regulus. Monotypic.

Flamecrest Regulus goodfellowi

IUCN Species Status

The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as common (del Hoyo et al. 2006), while the population in Taiwan has been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009).

Flamecrest Regulus goodfellowi

Species Account

Sound archive and distribution map.

Goldcrest Regulus regulus

Species Account

The goldcrest (Regulus regulus) is a very small passerine bird in the kinglet family. Its colourful golden crest feathers gives rise to its English and scientific names, and possibly to it being called the "king of the birds" in European folklore.

Goldcrest Regulus regulus

BirdLife Species Account

Goldcrest Regulus regulus

RSPB Species Account

With the firecrest, the goldcrest is the UK's smallest bird. They're dull greyish-green with a pale belly and a black and yellow stripe on their heads, which has an orange centre in males. Their thin beak is ideally suited for picking insects out from between pine needles.

Goldcrest Regulus regulus

HBW Species Account

Taxonomy: Motacilla Regulus Linnaeus, 1758, Europe = Sweden. Canary Is race teneriffae (with, by implication, newly described race ellenthalerae) has been treated variously as a race of R. ignicapilla or as a separate species, but acoustic and molecular markers indicate that Canarian populations belong with W Palearctic complex of races of present species that also includes nominate and the three Azores races (inermis, azoricus, sanctaemarie).

Goldcrest Regulus regulus

Species Account

Sound archive and distribution map.

Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa

Cornell Species Account

Golden-crowned Kinglets are boldly marked with a black eyebrow stripe and flashy lemon-yellow crest. A good look can require some patience, as they spend much of their time high up in dense spruce or fir foliage. To find them, listen for their high, thin call notes and song.

Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa

Species Account

The golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa) is a very small songbird.

Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa

HBW Species Account

Regulus satrapa M. H. C. Lichtenstein, 1823, North America. Traditionally considered closely related to, or even conspecific with, R. ignicapilla on basis of morphological features; molecular and acoustic data, however, suggest a sister-species relationship with R. regulus, but highly differentiated from latter in vocalizations and genetic markers. Race clarus weakly differentiated from aztecus, and possibly better merged with it. Described race amoenus (ranging from S Alaska and S Yukon S through interior mountains to S California, Utah and Colorado) tentatively synonymized with apache. Five subspecies recognized.

Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa

Species Account

Sound archive and distribution map.

Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa

IUCN Species Status

This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion.

Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa

BirdLife Species Account

Number of Species

Number of bird species: 6