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Heilongjiang Province

Band-bellied Crake Porzana paykullii ©Craig Brelsford Website

Heilongjiang is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. 'Heilongjiang' literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Chinese name for the Amur. The Manchu name of the region is Sahaliyan ula (literally, 'Black River'), from which the name of Sakhalin island is derived.

Heilongjiang borders Jilin in the south and Inner Mongolia to the west; it also borders Russia to the north.

The Amur River marks the border between the People's Republic of China and Russia to the north. Heilongjiang contains China's northernmost point (in Mohe County along the Amur) and easternmost point (at the junction of the Amur and Ussuri Rivers).

The provincial capital of Heilongjiang is Harbin.

Heilongjiang is a land of varied topography. Much of the province is dominated by mountain ranges such as the Greater Khingan Range and Lesser Khingan Range, Zhangguangcai Mountains, Laoye Mountains, and Wanda Mountains. The highest peak is Mount Datudingzi at 1690 m (5545 ft), located on the border with Jilin province). The Greater Khingan Range contains China's largest remaining virgin forest and is an important area for China's forestry industry.

The interior of the province, which is relatively flat and low in altitude, contains the Muling River, the Naoli River, the Songhua River, the Nen River, and the Mudan River, all tributaries of the Amur's basin, while the northern border forms part of the Amur valley. Xingkai Lake (or Khanka Lake) is found on the border with Russia's Primorsky Krai.

Heilongjiang is subarctic in climate. Winters are long and frigid, with an average of −31 to −15°C in January, and summers are short and cool with an average of 18 to 23°C in July. The annual average rainfall is 500 to 600 mm, concentrated mostly in summer.



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Fenglin National Nature Reserve


Satellite View

The forest belongs to the vegetation zone with coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests. It belongs to the Lesser Hinggan Mountains and varies from 280 meters to over 683 meters above the sea level…

Honghe National Nature Reserve


Satellite View

A near-natural marsh ecosystem with a large variety of wetland types, providing support for six endangered and rare species of flora and three of avifauna. The Reserve is the main breeding site for the Oriental stork Ciconia ciconia

San Jiang National Nature Reserve


Satellite View

An alluvial floodplain typical of high-altitude wetlands, a mixture of rivers, open bogs, seasonally flooded meadows, and sedge marshes, the largest area of freshwater wetland in the country. The site is internationally important for waterbirds, particularly ducks…

Xiao Xingkai Lake National Nature Reserve


Satellite View

A complex wetland system including grassland, marshes, lakes, and forests, contiguous with Russia to the south across the Songacha River. The site, at the northern end of the large lake, provides important breeding habitat for a number of bird species protected in China…

Zhalong Nature Reserve


Satellite View

system of permanent and seasonally flooded freshwater marshes, shallow lakes and ponds, with extensive reedbeds and grasslands…

Zhalong Nature Reserve


Satellite View

In the Reserve, there are over 500 red-crown cranes, accounting for one quarter of the total in the world. Therefore, the Reserve is called as Home to Cranes…

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2013 [06 June] - Paul Holt - Zhalong National Nature Reserve


…The reed bed held two singing Manchurian Reed Warblers and quite a few Northern Parrotbills – I saw both of these species on all three visits that I made to the site. There were also decent numbers of marsh terns (including one Black Tern), Great Bitterns and Black-browed Reed Warblers in the area. A summer plumaged Red-necked Grebe was one of rather few birds out on the lake itself….

2016 [06 June] - Craig Brelsford & Elaine Du - Boli County,


In this report, you will get an introduction to Boli and eastern Heilongjiang, you will discover the birds we met up there at the height of the breeding season, you will learn about the birds we missed, and you will find out how Elaine and I combine birding with family. There are as well 31 of my sound-recordings of Boli birds and plenty of photos.

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Avifauna of North Manchuria


A note on the wintering birds of the valleys of desinho and yaluro near niengtzeshan station on the chinese eastern railway.