Musophagidae – Turacos, Plantain-eaters & Go-away-birds

Great Blue Turaco Corythaeola cristata ©Trevor Hardaker Website

The  Musophagidae (literally ‘banana-eaters’), or turacos, includes plantain-eaters and go-away-birds. In southern Africa both turacos and go-away-birds are commonly known as louries. They are semi-zygodactylous – the fourth (outer) toe can be switched back and forth. The second and third toes, which always point forward, are conjoined in some species. Musophagids often have prominent crests and long tails; the turacos are noted for peculiar and unique pigments giving them their bright green and red feathers.

Traditionally, this group has been allied with the cuckoos in the order Cuculiformes, but the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy raises this group to a full order Musophagiformes. They have been proposed to link the hoatzin to the other living birds, but this was later disputed. Recent genetic analysis have strongly supported the order ranking of Musophagiformes.

Musophagids are medium-sized arboreal birds endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, where they live in forests, woodland and savanna. Their flight is weak, but they run quickly through the tree canopy. They feed mostly on fruits and to a lesser extent on leaves, buds, and flowers, occasionally taking small insects, snails, and slugs. As their name suggests, turacos enjoy bananas and can become so tame as to be hand-fed. They are also partial to grapes and pawpaw (papaya).

They are gregarious birds that do not migrate but move in family groups of up to ten. Many species are noisy, with the go-away-birds being especially noted for their piercing alarm calls, which alert other fauna to the presence of predators or hunters; their common name refers to this. They all build large stick nests in trees, and lay 2 or 3 eggs. The young are born with thick down and open, or nearly-open, eyes.

Most turacos are medium-sized birds, an exception being the large Great Blue Turaco, with long tails and short, rounded wings. They range in length from 40cm to 75cm. Their flight is weak, but they are strong climbers and are able to move nimbly on branches and through vegetation. Juveniles have claws on the wings that help them climb. They have a unique foot arrangement, where the fourth toe can be brought around to the back of the foot where it almost touches the first toe, or brought around so that it is near the second and third. In spite of this flexibility the toe is actually usually held at right angles to the axis of the foot.

The plumage of go-away-birds and plantain-eaters is mainly grey and white. The turacos on the other hand are brightly coloured birds, usually blue, green or purple. The green colour in turacos comes from turacoverdin, the only true green pigment in birds known to date. Other ‘greens’ in bird colours result from a yellow pigment such as some carotenoid, combined with the prismatic physical structure of the feather itself which scatters the light in a particular way and giving a blue colour. Turaco wings contain the red pigment turacin, unlike in other birds where red colour is due to carotenoids. Both pigments are derived from porphyrins and only known from the Musophagidae at present, but especially the little-researched turacoverdin might have relatives in other birds. The incidence of turacoverdin in relation to habitat is of interest to scientists, being present in forest species but absent in savanna and acacia living species.

Little is known about the longevity of wild turacos, but in captivity they are proving to be exceptionally long-lived, easily living to 30 and beyond in captivity.

According to the IOC there are 23 species in this family, which are:

Great Blue Turaco Corythaeola cristata

Guinea Turaco Tauraco persa
Livingstone’s Turaco Tauraco livingstonii
Schalow’s Turaco Tauraco schalowi
Knysna Turaco Tauraco corythaix
Black-billed Turaco Tauraco schuettii
Fischer’s Turaco Tauraco fischeri Tauraco macrorhynchus
White-crested Turaco Tauraco leucolophus
Bannerman’s Turaco Tauraco bannermani
Red-crested Turaco Tauraco erythrolophus
Hartlaub’s Turaco Tauraco hartlaubi
White-cheeked Turaco Tauraco leucotis
Ruspoli’s Turaco Tauraco ruspolii
Purple-crested Turaco Tauraco porphyreolophus

Ruwenzori Turaco Ruwenzorornis johnstoni

Violet Turaco Musophaga violacea
Ross’s Turaco Musophaga rossae

Grey Go-away-bird Corythaixoides concolor
Bare-faced Go-away-bird Corythaixoides personatus
White-bellied Go-away-bird Corythaixoides leucogaster

Western Plantain-eater Crinifer piscator
Eastern Plantain-eater Crinifer zonurus

Species Links
  • Bare-faced Go-away-bird Corythaixoides personatus

    HBW Species Account
  • Bare-faced Go-away-bird Corythaixoides personatus

    Species Account
    The bare-faced go-away-bird (Corythaixoides personatus) is a species of bird in the family Musophagidae which is native to the eastern Afrotropics.
  • Bare-faced Go-away-bird Corythaixoides personatus

    IUCN Species Status
  • Bare-faced Go-away-bird Corythaixoides personatus

    Species Account
    Sound archive and distribution map.
  • Eastern Plantain-eater Crinifer zonurus

    HBW Species Account
    Taxonomy: Chizaerhis zonurus Rüppell, 1835, Temben, Ethiopia. Believed closely related to C. piscator, with which has been considered conspecific. Monotypic.
  • Eastern Plantain-eater Crinifer zonurus

    Species Account
    Sound archive and distribution map.
  • Eastern Plantain-eater Crinifer zonurus

    Species Account
    The eastern plantain-eater, Crinifer zonurus, also known as the eastern grey plantain-eater, is a large member of the turaco family, a group of large arboreal near-passerine birds restricted to Africa.
  • Eastern Plantain-eater Crinifer zonurus

    BirdLife Species Account
  • Great Blue Turaco Corythaeola cristata

    Species Account
    The largest member of the Turaco family, the Great Blue measures around 70-75 cm long and usually weighs between 822-1231 grams.
  • Great Blue Turaco Corythaeola cristata

    Species Account
    The great blue turaco (Corythaeola cristata) is a turaco, a group of African near-passerines. It is the largest species of turaco.
  • Great Blue Turaco Corythaeola cristata

    IUCN Species Status
  • Great Blue Turaco Corythaeola cristata

    HBW Species Account
    Taxonomy: Musophaga cristata Vieillot, 1816, Sierra Leone. E African birds formerly separated in race yalensis. Monotypic.
  • Great Blue Turaco Corythaeola cristata

    BirdLife Species Account
  • Great Blue Turaco Corythaeola cristata

    Species Account
    Sound archive and distribution map.
  • Grey Go-away-bird Corythaixoides concolor

    BirdLife Species Account
  • Grey Go-away-bird Corythaixoides concolor

    HBW Species Account
  • Grey Go-away-bird Corythaixoides concolor

    IUCN Species Status
  • Grey Go-away-bird Corythaixoides concolor

    Species Account
    Sound archive and distribution map.
  • Grey Go-away-bird Corythaixoides concolor

    Species Account
    The grey go-away-bird (Corythaixoides concolor), also known as grey lourie, grey loerie, or kwêvoël, is a bold and common bird of the southern Afrotropics.
  • Knysna Turaco Tauraco corythaix

    BirdLife Species Account
  • Knysna Turaco Tauraco corythaix

    HBW Species Account
  • Knysna Turaco Tauraco corythaix

    Species Account
    Sound archive and distribution map.
  • Knysna Turaco Tauraco corythaix

    Species Account
    The Knysna turaco (Tauraco corythaix), or, in South Africa, Knysna lourie, is a large turaco, one of a group of African near-passerine birds. It is a resident breeder in the mature evergreen forests of southern and eastern South Africa, and Swaziland.
  • Ross's Turaco Musophaga rossae

    Species Account
    Ross's turaco or Lady Ross's turaco (Musophaga rossae) is a mainly bluish-purple African bird of the turaco family, Musophagidae.
  • Ross's Turaco Musophaga rossae

    BirdLife Species Account
  • Ross's Turaco Musophaga rossae

    HBW Species Account
    Taxonomy: Musophaga Rossæ Gould, 1852, Angola. Closely related to M. violacea; the two may be sympatric in N Central African Republic and C Cameroon (near Galim). Proposed form M. v. savannicola sometimes thought to belong with present species. Monotypic.
  • Ross's Turaco Musophaga rossae

    Species Account
    Sound archive and distribution map.
  • Ruwenzori Turaco Ruwenzorornis johnstoni

    BirdLife Species Account
  • Ruwenzori Turaco Ruwenzorornis johnstoni

    HBW Species Account
  • Ruwenzori Turaco Ruwenzorornis johnstoni

    IUCN Species Status
  • Ruwenzori Turaco Ruwenzorornis johnstoni

    IUCN Species Status
  • Ruwenzori Turaco Ruwenzorornis johnstoni

    Species Account
    Sound archive and distribution map.
  • Ruwenzori Turaco Ruwenzorornis johnstoni

    Species Account
    The Ruwenzori turaco (Ruwenzorornis johnstoni) is a species of bird in the Musophagidae family. It is monotypic within the genus Ruwenzorornis.[2] It is found in Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda.
  • Violet Turaco Musophaga violacea

    Species Account
    Sound archive and distribution map.
  • Violet Turaco Musophaga violacea

    Species Account
    The violet turaco, also known as the violaceous plantain eater (Musophaga violacea), is a large turaco, a group of African near-passerines. It is resident in West Africa, and has an extremely large range from Senegal through to the Nigeria, with an isolated population in Chad and Central African Republic.
  • Violet Turaco Musophaga violacea

    HBW Species Account
    Taxonomy: Musophaga violacea Isert, 1788, Accra, Ghana.Closely related to M. rossae; the two may be sympatric in N Central African Republic and C Cameroon (near Galim). Birds from E end of range formerly separated as race savannicola. Monotypic.
  • Violet Turaco Musophaga violacea

    BirdLife Species Account
  • Western Plantain-eater Crinifer piscator

    BirdLife Species Account
  • Western Plantain-eater Crinifer piscator

    HBW Species Account
    Taxonomy: Falco piscator Boddaert, 1783, Senegal. Formerly listed as C. africanus, on grounds that name piscator was based on illustration of a bird unidentifiable as present species. Believed closely related to C. zonurus, with which has been considered conspecific. Proposed race obscuratus (from E Cameroon) considered invalid. Monotypic.
  • Western Plantain-eater Crinifer piscator

    IUCN Species Status
  • Western Plantain-eater Crinifer piscator

    Species Account
    Sound archive and distribution map.
  • Western Plantain-eater Crinifer piscator

    Species Account
    The western plantain-eater (Crinifer piscator), also known as the grey plantain-eater or western grey plantain-eater, is a large member of the turaco family, a group of large arboreal near-passerine birds restricted to Africa.
  • White-bellied Go-away-bird Corythaixoides leucogaster

    BirdLife Species Account
  • White-bellied Go-away-bird Corythaixoides leucogaster

    HBW Species Account
  • White-bellied Go-away-bird Corythaixoides leucogaster

    IUCN Species Status
  • White-bellied Go-away-bird Corythaixoides leucogaster

    Species Account
    Sound archive and distribution map.
  • White-bellied Go-away-bird Corythaixoides leucogaster

    Species Account
    The white-bellied go-away-bird (Corythaixoides leucogaster) is a bird of eastern Africa in the turaco family.
Number of Species
  • Number of bird species: 23

Useful Reading
Organisations
  • International Turaco Society

    Website
    The International Turaco Society was set up in 1993 by a group of Turaco enthusiasts who met at the Cotswold Wildlife Park in Burford (Oxfordshire in England). Anyone interested in any aspect of keeping or breeding Turacos is welcome to join. Our membership also includes corporate members such as public zoos and bird gardens

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