Republic of Indonesia

Knobbed Hornbill Aceros cassidix ©Sam Woods Website

Indonesia is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world’s largest archipelagic country, with more than 17,500 islands straddling the equator. At over 1,900,000 square kilometres (c.735,000 square miles), it is the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. It extends over five thousand kilometres (3,000 miles) east to west and 1,750 kilometres (1,000 miles) north to south. Its highest peak (over 16,000 feet) is Puncak Jaya in West Papua, its largest lake, covering c.1,150 km2 (c.440 square miles) is Lake Toba in Sumatra. The largest rivers are in Kalimantan and West Papua and include the Kapuas, Barito, Mamberamo, Sepik and Mahakam and are often the main transport routes.

With over 280 million people, it is the world’s 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java’s 34 provinces comprise the world’s most populous island and contains more than half of the country’s population. Jakarta, the country’s capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world has a population of c. 11.5 million people. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India’s Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Lying along the equator, Indonesia’s climate tends to be relatively even year-round. There are two seasons – a wet season and a dry season – with no extremes of summer or winter. For most of Indonesia, the dry season falls between April and October with the wet season between November and March. Indonesia’s climate is almost entirely tropical, dominated by the tropical rainforest climate found in every major island of Indonesia, followed by the tropical monsoon climate that predominantly lies along Java’s coastal north, Sulawesi’s coastal south and east, and Bali, and finally the tropical Savanna climate, found in isolated locations of Central Java, lowland East Java, coastal southern Papua and smaller islands to the east of Lombok.

Birding Indonesia

Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity. Its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species. The islands of the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) were once linked to mainland Asia, and have a wealth of Asian fauna. Large species such as the Sumatran tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, Asian elephant, and leopard, were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. Sadly, Indonesia has a terrible record of deforestation, losing almost half of the forest in the last fifty years, often to the ubiquitous monoculture of palm oil plantations sometimes described as ecocide! Many species are critically endangered.

Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku – having been long separated from the continental landmasses – have developed their own unique flora and fauna. Papua was part of the Australian landmass, and is home to a unique fauna and flora closely related to that of Australia, including over 600 bird species. Forests cover approximately 70% of the country. Indonesia is second only to Australia in terms of total endemic species, with 36% of its over 1,700 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic.

Tanjung Puting National Park – taken during a photo trip to Indonesia in 2018 – taken by Thomas Fuhrmann, SnowmanStudios – see more pictures on / mehr Aufnahmen auf

Tanjung Puting National Park, Kalimantan ©Thomas Fuhrmann

It’s hardly surprising, therefore, that Indonesia has some of the best bird watching in the world! At over 1,700 species, or around 17% of the worlds birds, are found in Indonesia. Of these almost 600 are endemics: the most of any country in the world. Birding highlights are too many to mention. From crowned pigeons and birds-of-paradise, to endemic pheasants and pittas. There are plenty of reasons to visit once, re-visit and then keep going back.

Indonesia spans two continental regions – Asia and Australasia – with an island-region of its very own in the middle – Wallacea. Add to this 17,000 islands (making it the world’s largest archipelago) and you can start to understand the spectacular diversity and endemism among birds here.

Indonesia is huge, but its domestic travel network is good and getting better. Many excellent birding sites are well known and the access is straightforward. There are also many local guides and tour companies that can make birding easy. Alternatively, for those looking for adventure and discovery there is probably few better places to try than Indonesia. Many regions, including many smaller islands and mountains, are rarely ever visited by birders, and as a result there are probably more ‘lost species’, that have not been recorded for decades, than anywhere else. Also, almost certainly, there are still new species waiting to be discovered.

This page is sponsored by Birding Ecotours

Top Sites
  • See Regional Pages

    There are so many birding places, with such diversity, that it is impossible to pick individual sites as the top for the nation. Therefore, top sites are listed in each of the individual regional pages
Number of Species
  • Number of bird species: 1847

    (As at April 2024)

    National Bird: Javan Hawk-eagle Nisaetus bartelsi

  • Number of endemics: 398 (168 Non-Passerines)

    Bruijn's Brush-Turkey Aepypodius bruijnii
    Red-Billed Brush-Turkey Talegalla cuvieri
    Maleo Macrocephalon maleo
    Moluccan Scrubfowl Eulipoa wallacei
    Sula Scrubfowl Megapodius bernsteinii
    Tanimbar Scrubfowl Megapodius tenimberensis
    Biak Scrubfowl Megapodius geelvinkianus
    Snow Mountain Quail Anurophasis monorthonyx
    White-Faced Hill-Partridge Arborophila orientalis
    Chestnut-Bellied Partridge Arborophila javanica
    Red-Billed Partridge Arborophila rubrirostris
    Green Junglefowl Gallus varius
    Hoogerwerf's Pheasant Lophura hoogerwerfi
    Salvadori's Pheasant Lophura inornata
    Bronze-Tailed Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron chalcurum
    Spotted Kestrel Falco moluccensis
    Sulawesi Serpent Eagle Spilornis rufipectus
    Sulawesi Goshawk Accipiter griseiceps
    Spot-Tailed Goshawk Accipiter trinotatus
    Moluccan Goshawk Accipiter henicogrammus
    Small Sparrowhawk Accipiter nanus
    Rufous-Necked Sparrowhawk Accipiter erythrauchen
    Vinous-Breasted Sparrowhawk Accipiter rhodogaster
    Flores Hawk-Eagle Nisaetus floris
    Javan Hawk-Eagle Nisaetus bartelsi
    Sulawesi Hawk-Eagle Nisaetus lanceolatus
    White-Striped Forest-Rail Rallina leucospila
    Sharpe's Rail Gallirallus sharpei
    Invisible Rail Gallirallus wallacii
    Snoring Rail Aramidopsis plateni
    Blue-Faced Rail Gymnocrex rosenbergii
    Talaud Rail Gymnocrex talaudensis
    Isabelline Waterhen Amaurornis isabellinus
    Talaud Bush-Hen Amaurornis magnirostris
    Sumba Buttonquail Turnix everetti
    Javanese Lapwing Vanellus macropterus
    Javan Plover Charadrius javanicus
    Javan Woodcock Scolopax saturata
    Sulawesi Woodcock Scolopax celebensis
    Moluccan Woodcock Scolopax rochussenii
    White-Faced Cuckoo-Dove Turacoena manadensis
    Barred Dove Geopelia maugeus
    Sulawesi Ground Dove Gallicolumba tristigmata
    Western Crowned-Pigeon Goura cristata
    Grey-Cheeked Green Pigeon Treron griseicauda
    Flores Green Pigeon Treron floris
    Sumba Green Pigeon Treron teysmannii
    Sumatran Green Pigeon Treron oxyurus
    Pink-Headed Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus porphyreus
    Red-Naped Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus dohertyi
    Red-Eared Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus fischeri
    Maroon-Chinned Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus subgularis
    Scarlet-Breasted Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus bernsteinii
    Wallace's Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus wallacii
    Blue-Capped Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus monacha
    Grey-Headed Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus hyogastrus
    Carunculated Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus granulifrons
    Elegant Imperial Pigeon Ducula concinna
    White-Bellied Imperial Pigeon Ducula forsteni
    Grey-Headed Imperial Pigeon Ducula radiata
    Spectacled Imperial Pigeon Ducula perspicillata
    Spice Imperial Pigeon Ducula myristicivora
    Cinnamon-Bellied Imperial Pigeon Ducula basilica
    Dark-Backed Imperial Pigeon Ducula lacernulata
    Silver-Tipped Imperial Pigeon Ducula luctuosa
    Sombre Pigeon Cryptophaps poecilorrhoa
    Buru Mountain Pigeon Gymnophaps mada
    Sulawesi Hanging-Parrot Loriculus stigmatus
    Moluccan Hanging-Parrot Loriculus amabilis
    Sula Hanging-Parrot Loriculus sclateri
    Sangihe Hanging-Parrot Loriculus catamene
    Red-Billed Hanging-Parrot Loriculus exilis
    Yellow-Throated Hanging-Parrot Loriculus pusillus
    Flores Hanging-Parrot Loriculus flosculus
    Geelvink Pygmy-Parrot Micropsitta geelvinkiana
    Salmon-Crested Cockatoo Cacatua moluccensis
    White Cockatoo Cacatua alba
    Tanimbar Cockatoo Cacatua goffiniana
    Black Lory Chalcopsitta atra
    Red-And-Blue Lory Eos histrio
    Violet-Necked Lory Eos squamata
    Red Lory Eos bornea
    Blue-Streaked Lory Eos reticulata
    Black-Winged Lory Eos cyanogenia
    Blue-Eared Lory Eos semilarvata
    Ornate Lorikeet Trichoglossus ornatus
    Yellow-cheeked Lorikeet Saudareos meyeri
    Sula Lorikeet Saudareos flavoviridis
    Chattering Lory Lorius garrulus
    Purple-Naped Lory Lorius domicella
    Blue-Fronted Lorikeet Charmosyna toxopei
    Yellowish-Breasted Racquet-Tail Prioniturus flavicans
    Golden-Mantled Racquet-Tail Prioniturus platurus
    Buru Racquet-Tail Prioniturus mada
    Black-Lored Parrot Tanygnathus gramineus
    Great-Billed Parrot Tanygnathus megalorynchos
    Moluccan King-Parrot Alisterus amboinensis
    Salvadori's Fig-Parrot Psittaculirostris salvadorii
    Sulawesi Hawk-Cuckoo Cuculus crassirostris
    Moluccan Cuckoo Cacomantis aeruginosus
    Pied Bronze-Cuckoo Chrysococcyx crassirostris
    Black-Billed Koel Eudynamys melanorhynchus
    Yellow-Billed Malkoha Phaenicophaeus calyorhynchus
    Sumatran Ground Cuckoo Carpococcyx viridis
    Goliath Coucal Centropus goliath
    Kai Coucal Centropus spilopterus
    Biak Coucal Centropus chalybeus
    Sunda Coucal Centropus nigrorufus
    Bay Coucal Centropus celebensis
    Sulawesi Golden Owl Tyto inexspectata
    Seram Masked Owl Tyto almae
    Taliabu Masked Owl Tyto nigrobrunnea
    Moluccan Masked Owl Tyto sororcula
    Sulawesi Owl Tyto rosenbergii
    Simeulue Scops-Owl Otus umbra
    Javan Scops-Owl Otus angelinae
    Sulawesi Scops-Owl Otus manadensis
    Sangihe Scops-Owl Otus collari
    Flores Scops-Owl Otus alfredi
    Siau Scops-Owl Otus siaoensis
    Enggano Scops-Owl Otus enganensis
    Biak Scops-Owl Otus beccarii
    Mentawai Scops-Owl Otus mentawi
    Wallace's Scops-Owl Otus silvicola
    Javan Owlet Glaucidium castanopterum
    Sumba Boobook Ninox rudolfi
    Least Boobook Ninox sumbaensis
    Cinnabar Boobook Ninox ios
    Ochre-Bellied Boobook Ninox ochracea
    Togian Boobook Ninox burhani
    Speckled Boobook Ninox punctulata
    Satanic Nightjar Eurostopodus diabolicus
    Sulawesi Nightjar Caprimulgus celebensis
    Mees's Nightjar Caprimulgus meesi
    Salvadori's Nightjar Caprimulgus pulchellus
    Long-Whiskered Owlet-Nightjar Aegotheles crinifrons
    Vogelkop Owlet-Nightjar Aegotheles affinis
    Moluccan Swiftlet Collocalia infuscata
    Volcano Swiftlet Collocalia vulcanorum
    Javan Trogon Apalharpactes reinwardtii
    Sumatran Trogon Apalharpactes mackloti
    Purple-Winged Roller Coracias temminckii
    Purple Dollarbird Eurystomus azureus
    Green-Backed Kingfisher Actenoides monachus
    Scaly Kingfisher Actenoides princeps
    Kofiau Paradise-Kingfisher Tanysiptera ellioti
    Biak Paradise-Kingfisher Tanysiptera riedelii
    Numfor Paradise-Kingfisher Tanysiptera carolinae
    Lilac-Cheeked Kingfisher Cittura cyanotis
    White-Rumped Kingfisher Caridonax fulgidus
    Black-Billed Kingfisher Pelargopsis melanorhyncha
    Javan Kingfisher Halcyon cyanoventris
    Blue-And-White Kingfisher Todirhamphus diops
    Lazuli Kingfisher Todirhamphus lazuli
    Sombre Kingfisher Todirhamphus funebris
    Talaud Kingfisher Todirhamphus enigma
    Sulawesi Kingfisher Ceyx fallax
    Small Blue Kingfisher Alcedo coerulescens
    Black-Headed Kingfisher Actenoides capucinus
    Purple-Bearded Bee-Eater Meropogon forsteni
    Sulawesi Hornbill Penelopides exarhatus
    Knobbed Hornbill Aceros cassidix
    Sumba Hornbill Aceros everetti
    Brown-Throated Barbet Megalaima corvina
    Black-Banded Barbet Megalaima javensis
    Flame-Fronted Barbet Megalaima armillaris
    Sulawesi Woodpecker Dendrocopos temminckii
    Ashy Woodpecker Mulleripicus fulvus
  • Number of endemics: 398 (230 Passerines)

    Schneider's Pitta Pitta schneideri
    Ivory-Breasted Pitta Pitta maxima
    Sula Pitta Pitta dohertyi
    Graceful Pitta Pitta venusta
    Elegant Pitta Pitta elegans
    Vogelkop Bowerbird Amblyornis inornata
    Golden-Fronted Bowerbird Amblyornis flavifrons
    Orange-Cheeked Honeyeater Oreornis chrysogenys
    White-Streaked Friarbird Melitograis gilolensis
    Brass's Friarbird Philemon brassi
    Dusky Friarbird Philemon fuscicapillus
    Black-Faced Friarbird Philemon moluccensis
    Grey-Necked Friarbird Philemon subcorniculatus
    Arfak Honeyeater Melipotes gymnops
    Vogelkop Melidectes Melidectes leucostephes
    Rufous-Sided Honeyeater Ptiloprora erythropleura
    Dark-Eared Myza Myza celebensis
    White-Eared Myza Myza sarasinorum
    Scaly-Crowned Honeyeater Lichmera lombokia
    Olive Honeyeater Lichmera argentauris
    Indonesian Honeyeater Lichmera limbata
    White-Tufted Honeyeater Lichmera squamata
    Buru Honeyeater Lichmera deningeri
    Seram Honeyeater Lichmera monticola
    Black-Chested Honeyeater Lichmera notabilis
    Drab Myzomela Myzomela blasii
    Wetar Myzomela Myzomela kuehni
    Sumba Myzomela Myzomela dammermani
    Sulawesi Myzomela Myzomela chloroptera
    Wakolo Myzomela Myzomela wakoloensis
    Banda Myzomela Myzomela boiei
    Vogelkop Scrubwren Sericornis rufescens
    Biak Gerygone Gerygone hypoxantha
    Rufous-Sided Gerygone Gerygone dorsalis
    Ivory-Backed Woodswallow Artamus monachus
    Slaty Cuckooshrike Coracina schistacea
    Wallacean Cuckooshrike Coracina personata
    Moluccan Cuckooshrike Coracina atriceps
    Buru Cuckooshrike Coracina fortis
    Cerulean Cuckooshrike Coracina temminckii
    Pied Cuckooshrike Coracina bicolor
    White-Rumped Cuckooshrike Coracina leucopygia
    Halmahera Cuckooshrike Coracina parvula
    Pygmy Cuckooshrike Coracina abbotti
    Sumba Cicadabird Coracina dohertyi
    Sula Cicadabird Coracina sula
    Kai Cicadabird Coracina dispar
    Sulawesi Cicadabird Coracina morio
    Pale Cicadabird Coracina ceramensis
    White-Rumped Triller Lalage leucopygialis
    White-Shouldered Triller Lalage sueurii
    Rufous-Bellied Triller Lalage aurea
    White-Browed Triller Lalage moesta
    Flores Minivet Pericrocotus lansbergei
    Sunda Minivet Pericrocotus miniatus
    Olive-Flanked Whistler Hylocitrea bonensis
    Maroon-Backed Whistler Coracornis raveni
    Sangihe Shrikethrush Coracornis sanghirensis
    Island Whistler Pachycephala phaionota
    Sulphur-Bellied Whistler Pachycephala sulfuriventer
    Vogelkop Whistler Pachycephala meyeri
    Bare-Throated Whistler Pachycephala nudigula
    Black-Chinned Whistler Pachycephala mentalis
    Rusty-Breasted Whistler Pachycephala fulvotincta
    Drab Whistler Pachycephala griseonota
    Wallacean Whistler Pachycephala arctitorquis
    Wetar Figbird Sphecotheres hypoleucus
    Black-Eared Oriole Oriolus bouroensis
    Grey-Collared Oriole Oriolus forsteni
    Dusky-Brown Oriole Oriolus phaeochromus
    Raja Ampatn Pitohui Pitohui cerviniventris
    Sumatran Drongo Dicrurus sumatranus
    Sulawesi Drongo Dicrurus montanus
    Wallacean Drongo Dicrurus densus
    Caerulean Flycatcher Eutrichomyias rowleyi
    Rufous-Tailed Fantail Rhipidura phoenicura
    White-Bellied Fantail Rhipidura euryura
    Brown-Capped Fantail Rhipidura diluta
    Cinnamon-Tailed Fantail Rhipidura fuscorufa
    Sulawesi Fantail Rhipidura teysmanni
    Taliabu Fantail) Rhipidura sulaensis
    Tawny-Backed Fantail Rhipidura superflua
    Streaky-Breasted Fantail Rhipidura dedemi
    Long-Tailed Fantail Rhipidura opistherythra
    White-Naped Monarch Monarcha pileatus
    Loetoe Monarch Monarcha castus
    Black-Bibbed Monarch Monarcha mundus
    Flores Monarch Monarcha sacerdotum
    White-Tipped Monarch Monarcha everetti
    Black-Tipped Monarch Monarcha loricatus
    Black-Chinned Monarch Monarcha boanensis
    White-Tailed Monarch Monarcha leucurus
    Black-Backed Monarch Monarcha julianae
    Biak Monarch Monarcha brehmii
    Biak Flycatcher Myiagra atra
    Dark-Grey Flycatcher Myiagra galeata
    Piping Crow Corvus typicus
    Banggai Crow Corvus unicolor
    Flores Crow Corvus florensis
    Long-Billed Crow Corvus validus
    Brown-Headed Crow Corvus fuscicapillus
    Halmahera Paradise-Crow Lycocorax pyrrhopterus
    Obi Paradise-Crow Lycocorax obiensisa
    Long-Tailed Paradigalla Paradigalla carunculata
    Arfak Astrapia Astrapia nigra
    Bronze Parotia Parotia berlepschi
    Western Parotia Parotia sefilata
    Wilson's Bird-Of-Paradise Cicinnurus respublica
    Wallace's Standardwing Semioptera wallacii
    Red Bird-Of-Paradise Paradisaea rubra
    Vogelkop Superb Bird-Of-Paradise Lophorina niedda
    Smoky Robin Peneothello cryptoleuca
    Golden-Bellied Flyrobin Microeca hemixantha
    Snow Mountain Robin Petroica archboldi
    Pygmy Tit Psaltria exilis
    Bar-Winged Prinia Prinia familiaris
    Cream-Striped Bulbul Pycnonotus leucogrammicus
    Spot-Necked Bulbul Pycnonotus tympanistrigus
    Orange-Spotted Bulbul Pycnonotus bimaculatus
    Aceh Bulbul Pycnonotus snouckaerti
    Seram Golden Bulbul Alophoixus affinis
    Green-Winged Bulbul Hypsipetes virescens
    Javan Tesia Tesia superciliaris
    Russet-Capped Tesia Tesia everetti
    Tanimbar Bush Warbler Cettia carolinae
    Sulawesi Bush Warbler Locustella castanea
    Javan Bush Warbler Locustella montis
    Sulawesi Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus sarasinorum
    Sunda Warbler Phylloscopus grammiceps
    Rufous-Fronted Laughingthrush Garrulax rufifrons
    Spotted Crocias Crocias albonotatus
    Sulawesi Babbler Trichastoma celebense
    Sumatran Babbler Trichastoma buettikoferi
    Black-Browed Babbler Malacocincla perspicillata
    Rusty-Breasted Wren-Babbler Napothera rufipectus
    Javan Fulvetta Alcippe pyrrhoptera
    White-Breasted Babbler Stachyris grammiceps
    White-Bibbed Babbler Stachyris thoracica
    Crescent-Chested Babbler Stachyris melanothorax
    Grey-Cheeked Tit-Babbler Macronous flavicollis
    Malia Malia grata
    Enggano White-Eye Zosterops salvadorii
    Lemon-Bellied White-Eye Zosterops chloris
    Pearl-Bellied White-Eye Zosterops grayi
    Golden-Bellied White-Eye Zosterops uropygialis
    Pale-Bellied White-Eye Zosterops consobrinorum
    Lemon-Throated White-Eye Zosterops anomalus
    Yellow-Spectacled White-Eye Zosterops wallacei
    Black-Crowned White-Eye Zosterops atrifrons
    Sangihe White-Eye Zosterops nehrkorni
    Seram White-Eye Zosterops stalkeri
    Creamy-Throated White-Eye Zosterops atriceps
    Biak White-Eye Zosterops mysorensis
    Buru Yellow White-Eye Zosterops buruensis
    Ambon Yellow White-Eye Zosterops kuehni
    Bicoloured White-Eye Tephrozosterops stalkeri
    Rufous-Throated White-Eye Madanga ruficollis
    Javan Grey-Throated White-Eye Lophozosterops javanicus
    Streaky-Headed White-Eye Lophozosterops squamiceps
    Yellow-Browed White-Eye Lophozosterops superciliaris
    Grey-Hooded White-Eye Lophozosterops pinaiae
    Crested White-Eye Lophozosterops dohertyi
    Thick-Billed White-Eye Heleia crassirostris
    Tanimbar Starling Aplonis crassa
    Moluccan Starling Aplonis mysolensis
    Long-Tailed Starling Aplonis magna
    Sulawesi Myna Basilornis celebensis
    Helmeted Myna Basilornis galeatus
    Long-Crested Myna Basilornis corythaix
    White-Necked Myna Streptocitta albicollis
    Bare-Eyed Myna Streptocitta albertinae
    Fiery-Browed Myna Enodes erythrophris
    Finch-Billed Myna Scissirostrum dubium
    Bali Starling Leucopsar rothschildi
    Black-Winged Starling Sturnus melanopterus
    Shiny Whistling-Thrush Myophonus melanurus
    Javan Whistling-Thrush Myophonus glaucinus
    Chestnut-Winged Whistling-Thrush Myophonus castaneus
    Geomalia Zoothera heinrichi
    Slaty-Backed Thrush Zoothera schistacea
    Buru Thrush Zoothera dumasi
    Seram Thrush Zoothera joiceyi
    Enggano Thrush Zoothera leucolaema
    Red-Backed Thrush Zoothera erythronota
    Red-And-Black Thrush Zoothera mendeni
    Fawn-Breasted Thrush Zoothera machiki
    Sulawesi Thrush Cataponera turdoides
    Sumatran Cochoa Cochoa beccarii
    Javan Cochoa Cochoa azurea
    Great Shortwing Heinrichia calligyna
    Sunda Robin Cinclidium diana
    Sunda Forktail Enicurus velatus
    Buru Jungle Flycatcher Eumyias additus
    Sumba Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa segregata
    Rufous-Throated Flycatcher Ficedula rufigula
    Cinnamon-Chested Flycatcher Ficedula buruensis
    Damar Flycatcher Ficedula henrici
    Sumba Flycatcher Ficedula harterti
    Lompobattang Flycatcher Ficedula bonthaina
    Matinan Flycatcher Cyornis sanfordi
    Blue-Fronted Flycatcher Cyornis hoevelli
    Rueck's Blue-Flycatcher Cyornis ruckii
    Sulawesi Blue-Flycatcher Cyornis omissus
    Flores Jungle Flycatcher Cyornis oscillans
    Sumba Jungle Flycatcher Cyornis stresemanni
    Sula Jungle Flycatcher Cyornis colonus
    Banggai Jungle Flycatcher) Cyornis pelingensis
    Sumatran Leafbird Chloropsis media
    Blue-Masked Leafbird Chloropsis venusta
    Golden-Rumped Flowerpecker Dicaeum annae
    Yellow-Sided Flowerpecker Dicaeum aureolimbatum
    Crimson-Crowned Flowerpecker Dicaeum nehrkorni
    Flame-Breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum erythrothorax
    Ashy Flowerpecker Dicaeum vulneratum
    Black-Fronted Flowerpecker Dicaeum igniferum
    Grey-Sided Flowerpecker Dicaeum celebicum
    Blood-Breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum sanguinolentum
    Scarlet-Headed Flowerpecker Dicaeum trochileum
    Apricot-Breasted Sunbird Nectarinia buettikoferi
    Elegant Sunbird Aethopyga duyvenbodei
    White-Flanked Sunbird Aethopyga eximia
    Javan Sunbird Aethopyga mystacalis
    Black-Faced Munia Lonchura molucca
    White-Capped Munia Lonchura ferruginosa
    Five-Colored Munia Lonchura quinticolor
    Pale-Headed Munia Lonchura pallida
    Grey-Banded Munia Lonchura vana
    Snow Mountain Munia Lonchura montana
    Black-Breasted Munia Lonchura teerinki
    Java Sparrow Padda oryzivora
  • Avibase

    PDF Checklist
    This checklist includes all bird species found in Indonesia , based on the best information available at this time.
  • BirdList

    Not downloadable
  • Burung-Nusantara

    PDF Checklist
    Complete list including all subspecies
  • Wikipedia

    Annotated List
    The avifauna of Indonesia include a total of 1809 species, of which 786 are endemic, and 3 have been introduced by humans. 150 species are globally threatened.
Useful Reading

  • A Photographic Guide to the Birds of Indonesia

    | By Morton Strange | Periplus Editions | 2012 | Paperback | 544 pages, 920 colour photos, colour distribution maps | Out of Print | ISBN: 9780804842006 Buy this book from
  • Birding Indonesia

    | (A Bird-watcher's Guide to the World's Largest Archipelago) | Edited by Paul Jepson | Periplus Editions | 1997 | 284 pages, 120 colour plates, 40 maps | Out of Print | ISBN: 9789625930718 Buy this book from
  • Birds of Java, Sumatra and Bali

    | By Tony Tilford & Alain Compost | Bloomsbury Publishing | 2017 | Paperback | 136 pages, 250 colour photos, 1 colour map | Out of Print | ISBN: 9781472938183 Buy this book from
  • Birds of South-East Asia

    | (A Photographic Guide to the Birds of Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines and Indonesia) | By Morten Strange | New Holland Publishers | 1998 | Paperback | 12 pages, Colour photos throughout | Out of Print | ISBN: 9781853688799 Buy this book from
  • Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea

    | By James A Eaton, Bas van Balen, Nick W Brickle & Frank E Rheindt | Lynx Edicions | 2021 | Edition 2 | Flexibound | 536 pages, 2800+ colour illustrations, 1350+ colour distribution maps | ISBN: 9788416728442 Buy this book from
  • Birds of the Philippines, Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, Sulawesi, the Lesser Sundas and the Moluccas

    | By Norman Arlott | William Collins (Harper Collins imprint) | 2018 | Hardback | 416 pages, 179 plates with colour illustrations; colour distribution maps | ISBN: 9780008102395 Buy this book from
  • BirdLife - Burung Indonesia

    To be the guardian of Indonesia’s wild birds and their habitats through working with people for sustainable development. To achieve this, Burung Indonesia has been working on: Promoting conservation of sites, species and habitats. Working with communities to promote collaborative conservation and natural resource management for sustainable development. Developing the organizational capacity for improved management of habitats, sites, and species. Founded in 2002 - Staff: 74 - Jl. Dadali 32, Bogor, ID, 16161 . Tel. +62 251 835 7222 Ext 101; Fax. +62 251 835 7961
  • Burung Indonesia

  • IdOU - Indonesian Ornithologists' Union

    IdOU is a non profit membership-based organisation with the following objective: “To advance the ornithology of Indonesia by promoting the study of all aspects of Indonesian birds”. IdOU was established with the help of PILI- NGO Movement, and inaugurated at the Centre for Biology Research, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, (Cibinong, 23 August 2004). IdOU publishes Kukila, as well as facilitating relevant scientific fora as seminar, symposia, workshop, and invited talks.
  • Ornithological Society of Indonesia

    The Indonesian Ornithologists’ Union (IdOU) is a non profit membership-based organisation with the following objective: “To advance the ornithology of Indonesia by promoting the study of all aspects of Indonesian birds
  • Wildlife Conservaton Society – Indonesia Program (WCS-IP)

    The Wildlife Conservaton Society – Indonesia Program (WCS-IP) began working in Indonesia in 1965 and established a formal country program in 1991. Using a “muddy boots” method to conservation, we identify critical conservation issues, find sciencebased solutions to these problems, and achieve tangible, on-the-ground success that benefits wildlife and wild places…

Abbreviations Key

  • *See regional pages for national parks and reserves

    Observatory WebsiteSatellite View
  • Indonesia National Parks

    InformationSatellite View
    An extensive list of the national parks with information about each and some nice photographs.
  • Nature Reserves

    WebpageSatellite View
    Indonesia comprises a vast area in which various geological and climatological circumstances occur. Geological, the country can be divided in three parts. Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and Bali, together with parts of the Philipines, Thailand and Malaysia, lie on the Sunda continental shelf whereas Irian Jaya, together with Australia lies on the Sahul continental shelf. The sea bottom around Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara and Maluku forms no continuous shelf. These islands are seperated by very deep seas.
Guides & Tour Operators
  • Birding Ecotours

    Tour Operator
    The fauna of the vast island country of Indonesia is characterised by high levels of biodiversity and endemism due to its distribution over a vast tropical archipelago.
  • Naturalist Journeys

    Tour Operator
    Naturalist Journeys is excited to offer Indonesian birding and nature tours. Choose from one of the Indonesian birding tours below to get started.
  • Rockjumper

    Tour Operator
    Various locations
  • Sultan Birding Tours

    Tour Operator
    Sultan birding tours based in Manado North Sulawesi of Indonesia, specialized in operating bird photography and bird watching within the island of Sulawesi (Tangkoko Nature Reserve, Tomohon Highland, Dumoga Bone national Park, Lore Lindu National Park), Halmahera and other birding destination in Indonesia…
  • Vacation Indonesia Tours

    Tour Operator
    Vacation Indonesia Tours, owned by Nurlin Djuni & Darwin Sumang, is your gateway to Indonesia. We can immerse you in our culture, heritage and our extraordinarily diverse natural history. The Islands of Indonesia are justly famous for birdwatching. Over 372 species have been recorded and many are found nowhere else. Nurlin Djuni specialises in Birdwatching/Holidays Tours in Sulawesi, Halmahera, Papua, Java, Bali, Kalimantan, Lesser Sundas and Sumatera
Trip Reports
  • 2017 [09 September] - Ross Gallardy - Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi, Sangihe, Talaud, Halmahera, & Moluccas

    PDF Report
    From June-August 2017, Melissa and I traveled independently throughout the Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi, Sangihe, Talaud and theMoluccas in Indonesia. In total we visited twenty-three separate islands. Since there are already many good reports that coverthe majority of this region, I have decided to just give brief overviews of each spot we visited mostly focusing on updatedlocations for target birds and some updated cost information. For additional information on the region check out the reportsfrom others (listed below) especially the reports from Gareth Knass which are still mostly current and very detailed. Forinformation on exact species lists for each location visited, search in eBird. Overall the trip went very well and we thoroughlyenjoyed our extended visit to Indonesia.
  • 2018 [08 August] - Mark Van Beirs - Sulawesi & Halmahera

    PDF Report
    The highlight of our recent ‘Best of Sulawesi and Halmahera’ tour was the amazing spectacle of displaying Wallace’s Standardwings deep in the jungle of Halmahera, where the intrepid Alfred Russell Wallace himself had witnessed it c160 years ago. Seeing these incredible birds-of-paradise perform so well at close range sure made a lasting impression.
  • 2018 [09 September] - Mike Nelson

    PDF Report
    With a tasty list of endemics, it’s no wonder our West Java and Sumatra tour is very popular and our third tour this year didn’t disappoint, notching up a total of 341 species, including a fantastic crop of endemics and local specialties.
  • 2018 [10 October] - Craig Robson - Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera

    PDF Report
    With an ever-evolving and improving itinerary this fantastic tour continues to produce the goods. With our first ever visit to the North Moluccan islands of Morotai and Bacan, the addition of Obi as a post-tour extension, and further explorations in the Lompobattang mountains of SW Sulawesi, we were able to amass an impressive total of 320 species...
  • 2018 [10 October] - james Eaton - Banda Sea Cruise

    PDF Report
    The 4,000km long Indonesian archipelago, stretching east to west across three time zones, is host to more than 300 endemic birds. With more than 18,000 islands, it is almost impossible to see all of those endemics, and a considerable number are amongst the most difficult species on earth to see because they inhabit remote islands where there are no airports and boat travel is both slow and unpredictable.
  • 2019 [05 May] - Carlos Bocos - Sumatra & Java

    PDF Report
    Sumatra and West Java, one of the classic birding tours in Asia, was again an amazing journey through some of the best spots in the whole continent.
  • 2019 [07 July] - Sumaraja - Simeulue, Mentawai and Belitung

    PDF Report
    Situated in the Karimata Strait between Sumatra and Borneo, Bangka and Belitung are surprisingly large islands that share a number of Greater Sundas endemics, though the number of Bornean taxa here found on the islands reveal their closer association to the world’s third largest island. Between the two islands there are several distinctions too, one of which is the natunensis race of Crested Serpent Eagle, found only on Belitung and Natuna.
  • 2019 [08 August] - Mike Nelson - Sumatra & Java

    PDF Report
    The two huge islands of Sumatra and Java comprise half of the Greater Sundas. From steamy lowlands to high volcanic peaks these two islands boast over 80 endemic bird species, a number that makes them a priority for many avid birders. Our
  • 2019 [09 September - Mike Nelson - Sumba, Rote, Timor, Flores and Komodo

    PDF Report
    The Indonesian archipelago is home to just over 600 endemics and within Wallacea itself there are roughly around 265, over 40% of the close to 700 species recorded, and this number continues to grow with the ever-changing taxonomic picture. It is for this reason that the Lesser Sundas are such a magnet for birders and this year’s tour was filled with many of those endemics. Of the 230 species we recorded 77 are endemic with three heard only, these included such sought-after species as Flores Scops Owl showing amazingly well, Bare-throated Whistler and its amazing song, Red-naped Fruit Dove, Rote Boobook in drooping-wing display, colourful Iris and Marigold Lorikeets and concluded with monstrous Komodo Dragons feet away.
  • 2019 [11 November] - Mike Nelson - Sulawesi & Halmahera

    PDF Report
    When Alfred Russel Wallace arrived on Sulawesi, he noticed that the species were much more Australasian here compared with the Malay Archipelago.
  • 2020 [08 August] - Andy Walker - Flores

    Straight away on my first morning I heard my main target and after the usual pitta-cat-and-mouse I managed to get onto the bird, just as the sun was coming over the ridge and of course out of all the places it could choose... you guessed it! Over the course of the few days we were at the coast I heard several of them and saw at least three individuals. Managed to get an ok photo (below) but it was quite tough given the acacia-like dense vegetation. I was more than satisfied with my views. This was the 18th species of pitta I've seen, 16 of these have been photographed (see the pitta photo bar on the right of the blog)
  • 2022 [07 July] - Andrew Walker - Sulawesi & Halmahera

    PDF Report
    We recorded 232 species on the tour (nine of these heard only). Some of the birding highlights included Moluccan Megapode, Maleo, White (Umbrella) Cockatoo, Moluccan King Parrot, Golden-mantled Racket-tail, Moluccan Hanging Parrot, Knobbed Hornbill, Sulawesi Hornbill, Blyth’s Hornbill, Goliath Coucal, Sulawesi Hawk-Eagle, Gurney’s Eagle, Pygmy Eagle, Barred (Sulawesi) Honey Buzzard, Sulawesi Masked Owl, Eastern Grass Owl, Ochre-bellied Boobook, Speckled Boobook, Halmahera Boobook, Satanic Nightjar, Scaly-breasted Kingfisher, Green-backed Kingfisher, Sulawesi Lilac Kingfisher, Great-billed Kingfisher, Blue-and-white Kingfisher, Sombre Kingfisher, Common (Halmahera) Paradise Kingfisher, Purple-bearded Bee-eater, Halmahera Paradise-crow, (Wallace’s) Standardwing, Hylocitrea, Malia, Lompobattang Flycatcher, and Lompobattang Leaf Warbler.
  • 2022 [10 October] - Derek

    We visited a number of islands in Indonesia so I am writing this report based on the island rather than giving a daily summary. And as usual I will only list our life birds – the rest will be in the attached lists...
  • 2023 [08 August] - Birding Ecotours

    PDF Reports
    Several recent reports listed for download
  • 2023 [11 November] - Rockjumper

    PDF Reports
    Several recent reports listed for download
Places to Stay
  • Nihiwatu

    For trekkers there are incredible waterfalls and beaches to discover and while hiking through the tropical forests you can also search for the indigenous birds of Sumba Island. If you are looking for adventure, true natural beauty or just relaxing and really getting away to another world, Nihiwatu Resort, in Indonesia is the place to be.
Other Links
  • Birding in Indonesia

    Indonesia consists of thousands of islands and more than 1500 species of birds are recorded in the country. Many of these islands are of great biological value. There are hundreds of nature reserves. I will describe a few of these, starting with some on Java, Bali and Lombok. In 1994 my wife and I spent five weeks on these islands. The pressure on bird habitats here is very high and many species are rather scarce as a result of massive capture for the pet trade. But still many places are worth a birding visit.
  • Birding on Bali

    The Bali Barat National Park is located on the north west tip of Bali. This reserve is the last site for the endangered Bali Myna. At Tegal Bunder it is possible to visit the Bali Myna project release centre. Pulau Menjangan is a small island that belongs to the reserve. Here are very beautiful coral reefs and it is a good spot for Lemon-bellied White-eye. The park is pretty much left alone by the thousands of tourists that visit Bali each year.
  • Birding on Java

    A number of different locations with access details, checklists etc.
  • Burung-Nusantara - Birds-Indonesia

    Birding and bird conservation in Indonesia. Site-by-site birdwatching guides, maps, birding trip reports, Indonesia bird checklists, listings of local guides & services, photo galleries, local bird conservation groups, bird conservation projects, birding ID forums and more
  • Javan Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus bartelsi

    Until recently, little was known about this enigmatic bird of prey, but ecological research, including radio tracking, has provided information on prey species, breeding biology and the home range of non-breeding males
  • Operation Wallacia

    Operation Wallacea is a series of scientific wildlife survey and conservation expeditions to a remote corner of the island of Sulawesi. It has been running wildlife research and community development projects in SE Sulawesi for the last 6 years. In 2001 there were nearly 300 mainly University students, together with 35 scientists, a professional photographer, an artist, expert trackers and forest support teams, diving staff and extensive logistics team to support the wide range of projects completed.
  • Project Birdwatch

    To develop locally owned, low-cost, ecotourism cooperatives which enable wild bird trappers and sellers to work as birdwatching guides and tour organizers. To promote conservation of threatened bird populations and draw wider attention to unsustainable practices in the existing wild-caught bird trade.

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