Republic of Indonesia

Knobbed Hornbill Aceros cassidix ©Sam Woods Website
Birding Indonesia

Indonesia is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world’s largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, and at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles), the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world’s 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world’s most populous island, contains more than half of the country’s population. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. Jakarta, the country’s capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India’s Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Lying along the equator, Indonesia’s climate tends to be relatively even year-round.[84]Indonesia has two seasons – a wet season and a dry season – with no extremes of summer or winter. For most of Indonesia, the dry season falls between April and October with the wet season between November and March.[85]Indonesia’s climate is almost entirely tropical, dominated by the tropical rainforest climate found in every major island of Indonesia, followed by the tropical monsoon climate that predominantly lies along Java’s coastal north, Sulawesi’s coastal south and east, and Bali, and finally the tropical Savanna climate, found in isolated locations of Central Java, lowland East Java, coastal southern Papua and smaller islands to the east of Lombok. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity. Its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species. The islands of the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) were once linked to mainland Asia, and have a wealth of Asian fauna. Large species such as the Sumatran tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, Asian elephant, and leopard, were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku – having been long separated from the continental landmasses – have developed their own unique flora and fauna. Papua was part of the Australian landmass, and is home to a unique fauna and flora closely related to that of Australia, including over 600 bird species. Forests cover approximately 70% of the country. Indonesia is second only to Australia in terms of total endemic species, with 36% of its over 1,700 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic.

Its hardly surprising, therefore, that Indonesia has some of the best bird watching in the world! At over 1,700 species, or around 17% of the worlds birds, are found in Indonesia. Of these almost 600 are endemics: the most of any country in the world. Birding highlights are too many to mention. From crowned pigeons and birds-of-paradise, to endemic pheasants and pittas. There are plenty of reasons to come once, come again, and then keep coming back!Indonesia spans two continental regions – Asia and Australasia – with an island-region of its very own in the middle – Wallacea. Add to this 17,000 islands (making it the world’s largest archipelago) and you can start to understand the spectacular diversity and endemism among birds here.

Indonesia is huge, but its domestic travel network is good and getting better. Many excellent birding sites are well known and the access is straightforward. There are also many local guides and tour companies that can make birding easy. Alternatively, for those looking for adventure and discovery there is probably few better places to try than Indonesia. Many regions, including many smaller islands and mountains, are rarely ever visited by birders, and as a result there are probably more ‘lost species’, that have not been recorded for decades, than anywhere else. There are also undoubtedly new species still waiting to be discovered.

This page is sponsored by Birding Ecotours

Top Sites
  • See Regional Pages

    There are so many birding places, with such diversity, that it is impossible to pick individual sites as the top for the nation. Therefore, top sites are listed in each of the individual regional pages
Number of Species
  • Number of bird species: 1748

    (As at April 2020)

    National Bird: Javan Hawk-eagle Nisaetus bartelsi

  • Number of endemics: 457

    Bruijn's Brush-Turkey Aepypodius bruijnii Red-Billed Brush-Turkey Talegalla cuvieri Maleo Macrocephalon maleo Moluccan Scrubfowl Eulipoa wallacei Sula Scrubfowl Megapodius bernsteinii Tanimbar Scrubfowl Megapodius tenimberensis Biak Scrubfowl Megapodius geelvinkianus Snow Mountain Quail Anurophasis monorthonyx White-Faced Hill-Partridge Arborophila orientalis Chestnut-Bellied Partridge Arborophila javanica Red-Billed Partridge Arborophila rubrirostris Green Junglefowl Gallus varius Hoogerwerf's Pheasant Lophura hoogerwerfi Salvadori's Pheasant Lophura inornata Bronze-Tailed Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron chalcurum Spotted Kestrel Falco moluccensis Sulawesi Serpent Eagle Spilornis rufipectus Sulawesi Goshawk Accipiter griseiceps Spot-Tailed Goshawk Accipiter trinotatus Moluccan Goshawk Accipiter henicogrammus Small Sparrowhawk Accipiter nanus Rufous-Necked Sparrowhawk Accipiter erythrauchen Vinous-Breasted Sparrowhawk Accipiter rhodogaster Flores Hawk-Eagle Nisaetus floris Javan Hawk-Eagle Nisaetus bartelsi Sulawesi Hawk-Eagle Nisaetus lanceolatus White-Striped Forest-Rail Rallina leucospila Sharpe's Rail Gallirallus sharpei Invisible Rail Gallirallus wallacii Snoring Rail Aramidopsis plateni Blue-Faced Rail Gymnocrex rosenbergii Talaud Rail Gymnocrex talaudensis Isabelline Waterhen Amaurornis isabellinus Talaud Bush-Hen Amaurornis magnirostris Sumba Buttonquail Turnix everetti Javanese Lapwing Vanellus macropterus Javan Plover Charadrius javanicus Javan Woodcock Scolopax saturata Sulawesi Woodcock Scolopax celebensis Moluccan Woodcock Scolopax rochussenii White-Faced Cuckoo-Dove Turacoena manadensis Barred Dove Geopelia maugeus Sulawesi Ground Dove Gallicolumba tristigmata Western Crowned-Pigeon Goura cristata Grey-Cheeked Green Pigeon Treron griseicauda Flores Green Pigeon Treron floris Sumba Green Pigeon Treron teysmannii Sumatran Green Pigeon Treron oxyurus Pink-Headed Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus porphyreus Red-Naped Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus dohertyi Red-Eared Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus fischeri Maroon-Chinned Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus subgularis Scarlet-Breasted Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus bernsteinii Wallace's Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus wallacii Blue-Capped Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus monacha Grey-Headed Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus hyogastrus Carunculated Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus granulifrons Elegant Imperial Pigeon Ducula concinna White-Bellied Imperial Pigeon Ducula forsteni Grey-Headed Imperial Pigeon Ducula radiata Spectacled Imperial Pigeon Ducula perspicillata Spice Imperial Pigeon Ducula myristicivora Cinnamon-Bellied Imperial Pigeon Ducula basilica Dark-Backed Imperial Pigeon Ducula lacernulata Silver-Tipped Imperial Pigeon Ducula luctuosa Sombre Pigeon Cryptophaps poecilorrhoa Buru Mountain Pigeon Gymnophaps mada Sulawesi Hanging-Parrot Loriculus stigmatus Moluccan Hanging-Parrot Loriculus amabilis Sula Hanging-Parrot Loriculus sclateri Sangihe Hanging-Parrot Loriculus catamene Red-Billed Hanging-Parrot Loriculus exilis Yellow-Throated Hanging-Parrot Loriculus pusillus Flores Hanging-Parrot Loriculus flosculus Geelvink Pygmy-Parrot Micropsitta geelvinkiana Salmon-Crested Cockatoo Cacatua moluccensis White Cockatoo Cacatua alba Tanimbar Cockatoo Cacatua goffiniana Black Lory Chalcopsitta atra Red-And-Blue Lory Eos histrio Violet-Necked Lory Eos squamata Red Lory Eos bornea Blue-Streaked Lory Eos reticulata Black-Winged Lory Eos cyanogenia Blue-Eared Lory Eos semilarvata Ornate Lorikeet Trichoglossus ornatus Yellow-And-Green Lorikeet Trichoglossus flavoviridis Chattering Lory Lorius garrulus Purple-Naped Lory Lorius domicella Blue-Fronted Lorikeet Charmosyna toxopei Yellowish-Breasted Racquet-Tail Prioniturus flavicans Golden-Mantled Racquet-Tail Prioniturus platurus Buru Racquet-Tail Prioniturus mada Black-Lored Parrot Tanygnathus gramineus Great-Billed Parrot Tanygnathus megalorynchos Moluccan King-Parrot Alisterus amboinensis Salvadori's Fig-Parrot Psittaculirostris salvadorii Sulawesi Hawk-Cuckoo Cuculus crassirostris Moluccan Cuckoo Cacomantis aeruginosus Pied Bronze-Cuckoo Chrysococcyx crassirostris Black-Billed Koel Eudynamys melanorhynchus Yellow-Billed Malkoha Phaenicophaeus calyorhynchus Sumatran Ground Cuckoo Carpococcyx viridis Goliath Coucal Centropus goliath Kai Coucal Centropus spilopterus Biak Coucal Centropus chalybeus Sunda Coucal Centropus nigrorufus Bay Coucal Centropus celebensis Sulawesi Golden Owl Tyto inexspectata Seram Masked Owl Tyto almae Taliabu Masked Owl Tyto nigrobrunnea Moluccan Masked Owl Tyto sororcula Sulawesi Owl Tyto rosenbergii Simeulue Scops-Owl Otus umbra Javan Scops-Owl Otus angelinae Sulawesi Scops-Owl Otus manadensis Sangihe Scops-Owl Otus collari Flores Scops-Owl Otus alfredi Siau Scops-Owl Otus siaoensis Enggano Scops-Owl Otus enganensis Biak Scops-Owl Otus beccarii Mentawai Scops-Owl Otus mentawi Wallace's Scops-Owl Otus silvicola Javan Owlet Glaucidium castanopterum Sumba Boobook Ninox rudolfi Little Sumba Hawk-Owl Ninox sumbaensis Cinnabar Hawk-Owl Ninox ios Ochre-Bellied Hawk-Owl Ninox ochracea Togian Hawk-Owl Ninox burhani Speckled Hawk-Owl Ninox punctulata Sulawesi Eared Nightjar Eurostopodus diabolicus Sulawesi Nightjar Caprimulgus celebensis Mees's Nightjar Caprimulgus meesi Salvadori's Nightjar Caprimulgus pulchellus Long-Whiskered Owlet-Nightjar Aegotheles crinifrons Vogelkop Owlet-Nightjar Aegotheles affinis Moluccan Swiftlet Collocalia infuscata Volcano Swiftlet Collocalia vulcanorum Javan Trogon Apalharpactes reinwardtii Sumatran Trogon Apalharpactes mackloti Purple-Winged Roller Coracias temminckii Purple Dollarbird Eurystomus azureus Green-Backed Kingfisher Actenoides monachus Scaly Kingfisher Actenoides princeps Kofiau Paradise-Kingfisher Tanysiptera ellioti Biak Paradise-Kingfisher Tanysiptera riedelii Numfor Paradise-Kingfisher Tanysiptera carolinae Lilac-Cheeked Kingfisher Cittura cyanotis White-Rumped Kingfisher Caridonax fulgidus Black-Billed Kingfisher Pelargopsis melanorhyncha Javan Kingfisher Halcyon cyanoventris Blue-And-White Kingfisher Todirhamphus diops Lazuli Kingfisher Todirhamphus lazuli Sombre Kingfisher Todirhamphus funebris Talaud Kingfisher Todirhamphus enigma Sulawesi Kingfisher Ceyx fallax Small Blue Kingfisher Alcedo coerulescens Black-Headed Kingfisher Actenoides capucinus Purple-Bearded Bee-Eater Meropogon forsteni Sulawesi Hornbill Penelopides exarhatus Knobbed Hornbill Aceros cassidix Sumba Hornbill Aceros everetti Brown-Throated Barbet Megalaima corvina Black-Banded Barbet Megalaima javensis Flame-Fronted Barbet Megalaima armillaris Sulawesi Woodpecker Dendrocopos temminckii Ashy Woodpecker Mulleripicus fulvus

    Schneider's Pitta Pitta schneideri Ivory-Breasted Pitta Pitta maxima Sula Pitta Pitta dohertyi Graceful Pitta Pitta venusta Elegant Pitta Pitta elegans Vogelkop Bowerbird Amblyornis inornata Golden-Fronted Bowerbird Amblyornis flavifrons Orange-Cheeked Honeyeater Oreornis chrysogenys White-Streaked Friarbird Melitograis gilolensis Brass's Friarbird Philemon brassi Dusky Friarbird Philemon fuscicapillus Black-Faced Friarbird Philemon moluccensis Grey-Necked Friarbird Philemon subcorniculatus Arfak Honeyeater Melipotes gymnops Vogelkop Melidectes Melidectes leucostephes Rufous-Sided Honeyeater Ptiloprora erythropleura Dark-Eared Myza Myza celebensis White-Eared Myza Myza sarasinorum Scaly-Crowned Honeyeater Lichmera lombokia Olive Honeyeater Lichmera argentauris Indonesian Honeyeater Lichmera limbata White-Tufted Honeyeater Lichmera squamata Buru Honeyeater Lichmera deningeri Seram Honeyeater Lichmera monticola Black-Chested Honeyeater Lichmera notabilis Drab Myzomela Myzomela blasii Crimson-Hooded Myzomela Myzomela kuehni Sumba Myzomela Myzomela dammermani Sulawesi Myzomela Myzomela chloroptera Wakolo Myzomela Myzomela wakoloensis Banda Myzomela Myzomela boiei Vogelkop Scrubwren Sericornis rufescens Biak Gerygone Gerygone hypoxantha Rufous-Sided Gerygone Gerygone dorsalis Ivory-Backed Woodswallow Artamus monachus Slaty Cuckooshrike Coracina schistacea Wallacean Cuckooshrike Coracina personata Moluccan Cuckooshrike Coracina atriceps Buru Cuckooshrike Coracina fortis Cerulean Cuckooshrike Coracina temminckii Pied Cuckooshrike Coracina bicolor White-Rumped Cuckooshrike Coracina leucopygia Halmahera Cuckooshrike Coracina parvula Pygmy Cuckooshrike Coracina abbotti Sumba Cicadabird Coracina dohertyi Sula Cicadabird Coracina sula Kai Cicadabird Coracina dispar Sulawesi Cicadabird Coracina morio Pale Cicadabird Coracina ceramensis White-Rumped Triller Lalage leucopygialis White-Shouldered Triller Lalage sueurii Rufous-Bellied Triller Lalage aurea White-Browed Triller Lalage moesta Flores Minivet Pericrocotus lansbergei Sunda Minivet Pericrocotus miniatus Olive-Flanked Whistler Hylocitrea bonensis Maroon-Backed Whistler Coracornis raveni Sangihe Shrikethrush Coracornis sanghirensis Island Whistler Pachycephala phaionota Sulphur-Bellied Whistler Pachycephala sulfuriventer Vogelkop Whistler Pachycephala meyeri Bare-Throated Whistler Pachycephala nudigula Black-Chinned Whistler Pachycephala mentalis Rusty-Breasted Whistler Pachycephala fulvotincta Drab Whistler Pachycephala griseonota Wallacean Whistler Pachycephala arctitorquis Wetar Figbird Sphecotheres hypoleucus Black-Eared Oriole Oriolus bouroensis Grey-Collared Oriole Oriolus forsteni Dusky-Brown Oriole Oriolus phaeochromus Sumatran Drongo Dicrurus sumatranus Sulawesi Drongo Dicrurus montanus Wallacean Drongo Dicrurus densus Rufous-Tailed Fantail Rhipidura phoenicura White-Bellied Fantail Rhipidura euryura Brown-Capped Fantail Rhipidura diluta Cinnamon-Tailed Fantail Rhipidura fuscorufa Sulawesi Fantail Rhipidura teysmanni Taliabu Fantail) Rhipidura sulaensis Tawny-Backed Fantail Rhipidura superflua Streaky-Breasted Fantail Rhipidura dedemi Long-Tailed Fantail Rhipidura opistherythra Caerulean Paradise-Flycatcher Eutrichomyias rowleyi White-Naped Monarch Monarcha pileatus Loetoe Monarch Monarcha castus Black-Bibbed Monarch Monarcha mundus Flores Monarch Monarcha sacerdotum White-Tipped Monarch Monarcha everetti Black-Tipped Monarch Monarcha loricatus Black-Chinned Monarch Monarcha boanensis White-Tailed Monarch Monarcha leucurus Black-Backed Monarch Monarcha julianae Biak Monarch Monarcha brehmii Biak Flycatcher Myiagra atra Dark-Grey Flycatcher Myiagra galeata Piping Crow Corvus typicus Banggai Crow Corvus unicolor Flores Crow Corvus florensis Long-Billed Crow Corvus validus Brown-Headed Crow Corvus fuscicapillus Paradise-Crow Lycocorax pyrrhopterus Long-Tailed Paradigalla Paradigalla carunculata Arfak Astrapia Astrapia nigra Western Parotia Parotia sefilata Wilson's Bird-Of-Paradise Cicinnurus respublica Wallace's Standardwing Semioptera wallacii Red Bird-Of-Paradise Paradisaea rubra Smoky Robin Peneothello cryptoleuca Golden-Bellied Flyrobin Microeca hemixantha Snow Mountain Robin Petroica archboldi Pygmy Tit Psaltria exilis Bar-Winged Prinia Prinia familiaris Cream-Striped Bulbul Pycnonotus leucogrammicus Spot-Necked Bulbul Pycnonotus tympanistrigus Orange-Spotted Bulbul Pycnonotus bimaculatus Aceh Bulbul) - NR Pycnonotus snouckaerti Seram Golden Bulbul Alophoixus affinis Green-Winged Bulbul Hypsipetes virescens Javan Tesia Tesia superciliaris Russet-Capped Tesia Tesia everetti Tanimbar Bush Warbler Cettia carolinae Chestnut-Backed Bush Warbler Locustella castanea Javan Bush Warbler Locustella montis Sulawesi Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus sarasinorum Sunda Warbler Phylloscopus grammiceps Rufous-Fronted Laughingthrush Garrulax rufifrons Spotted Crocias Crocias albonotatus Sulawesi Babbler Trichastoma celebense Sumatran Babbler Trichastoma buettikoferi Black-Browed Babbler Malacocincla perspicillata Rusty-Breasted Wren-Babbler Napothera rufipectus Javan Fulvetta Alcippe pyrrhoptera White-Breasted Babbler Stachyris grammiceps White-Bibbed Babbler Stachyris thoracica Crescent-Chested Babbler Stachyris melanothorax Grey-Cheeked Tit-Babbler Macronous flavicollis Malia Malia grata Enggano White-Eye Zosterops salvadorii Lemon-Bellied White-Eye Zosterops chloris Pearl-Bellied White-Eye Zosterops grayi Golden-Bellied White-Eye Zosterops uropygialis Pale-Bellied White-Eye Zosterops consobrinorum Lemon-Throated White-Eye Zosterops anomalus Yellow-Spectacled White-Eye Zosterops wallacei Black-Crowned White-Eye Zosterops atrifrons Sangihe White-Eye Zosterops nehrkorni Seram White-Eye Zosterops stalkeri Creamy-Throated White-Eye Zosterops atriceps Biak White-Eye Zosterops mysorensis Buru Yellow White-Eye Zosterops buruensis Ambon Yellow White-Eye Zosterops kuehni Bicoloured White-Eye Tephrozosterops stalkeri Rufous-Throated White-Eye Madanga ruficollis Javan Grey-Throated White-Eye Lophozosterops javanicus Streaky-Headed White-Eye Lophozosterops squamiceps Yellow-Browed White-Eye Lophozosterops superciliaris Grey-Hooded White-Eye Lophozosterops pinaiae Crested White-Eye Lophozosterops dohertyi Thick-Billed White-Eye Heleia crassirostris Tanimbar Starling Aplonis crassa Moluccan Starling Aplonis mysolensis Long-Tailed Starling Aplonis magna Sulawesi Myna Basilornis celebensis Helmeted Myna Basilornis galeatus Long-Crested Myna Basilornis corythaix White-Necked Myna Streptocitta albicollis Bare-Eyed Myna Streptocitta albertinae Fiery-Browed Myna Enodes erythrophris Finch-Billed Myna Scissirostrum dubium Bali Starling Leucopsar rothschildi Black-Winged Starling Sturnus melanopterus Shiny Whistling-Thrush Myophonus melanurus Javan Whistling-Thrush Myophonus glaucinus Chestnut-Winged Whistling-Thrush Myophonus castaneus Geomalia Zoothera heinrichi Slaty-Backed Thrush Zoothera schistacea Buru Thrush Zoothera dumasi Seram Thrush Zoothera joiceyi Enggano Thrush Zoothera leucolaema Red-Backed Thrush Zoothera erythronota Red-And-Black Thrush Zoothera mendeni Fawn-Breasted Thrush Zoothera machiki Sulawesi Thrush Cataponera turdoides Sumatran Cochoa Cochoa beccarii Javan Cochoa Cochoa azurea Great Shortwing Heinrichia calligyna Sunda Robin Cinclidium diana Sunda Forktail Enicurus velatus Streak-Breasted Jungle Flycatcher Eumyias additus Sumba Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa segregata Rufous-Throated Flycatcher Ficedula rufigula Cinnamon-Chested Flycatcher Ficedula buruensis Damar Flycatcher Ficedula henrici Sumba Flycatcher Ficedula harterti Lompobattang Flycatcher Ficedula bonthaina Matinan Flycatcher Cyornis sanfordi Blue-Fronted Flycatcher Cyornis hoevelli Rueck's Blue-Flycatcher Cyornis ruckii Sulawesi Blue-Flycatcher Cyornis omissus Russet-Backed Jungle Flycatcher Cyornis oscillans Sula Jungle Flycatcher Cyornis colonus Banggai Jungle Flycatcher) Cyornis pelingensis Sumatran Leafbird Chloropsis media Blue-Masked Leafbird Chloropsis venusta Golden-Rumped Flowerpecker Dicaeum annae Yellow-Sided Flowerpecker Dicaeum aureolimbatum Crimson-Crowned Flowerpecker Dicaeum nehrkorni Flame-Breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum erythrothorax Ashy Flowerpecker Dicaeum vulneratum Black-Fronted Flowerpecker Dicaeum igniferum Grey-Sided Flowerpecker Dicaeum celebicum Blood-Breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum sanguinolentum Scarlet-Headed Flowerpecker Dicaeum trochileum Apricot-Breasted Sunbird Nectarinia buettikoferi Elegant Sunbird Aethopyga duyvenbodei White-Flanked Sunbird Aethopyga eximia Javan Sunbird Aethopyga mystacalis Black-Faced Munia Lonchura molucca White-Capped Munia Lonchura ferruginosa Five-Colored Munia Lonchura quinticolor Pale-Headed Munia Lonchura pallida Grey-Banded Munia Lonchura vana Snow Mountain Munia Lonchura montana Black-Breasted Munia Lonchura teerinki Java Sparrow Padda oryzivora

  • iGoTerra Checklist

    iGoTerra Checklist
    Fatbirder Associate iGoTerra offers the most comprehensive and up to date birds lists on the web
  • iGoTerra Checklist for Indonesia North of the Wallace Line

    iGoTerra Checklist
    Fatbirder Associate iGoTerra offers the most comprehensive and up to date birds lists on the web
  • iGoTerra Checklist for Indonesia South of the Wallace Line

    iGoTerra Checklist
    Fatbirder Associate iGoTerra offers the most comprehensive and up to date birds lists on the web
Useful Reading

  • A Photographic Guide to the Birds of Indonesia

    | By Morton Strange | Periplus Editions | 2012 | Paperback | 544 pages, 920 colour photos, colour distribution maps | ISBN: 9780804842006 Buy this book from
  • Birding Indonesia

    | (A Bird-watcher's Guide to the World's Largest Archipelago) | Edited by Paul Jepson | Periplus Editions | 1997 | 284 pages, 120 colour plates, 40 maps | ISBN: 9789625930718 Buy this book from
  • Birds of Java, Sumatra and Bali

    | By Tony Tilford & Alain Compost | Bloomsbury Publishing | 2017 | Paperback | 136 pages, 250 colour photos, 1 colour map | ISBN: 9781472938183 Buy this book from
  • Birds of South-East Asia

    | (A Photographic Guide to the Birds of Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines and Indonesia) | By Morten Strange | New Holland Publishers | 1998 | Paperback | 12 pages, Colour photos throughout | ISBN: 9781853688799 Buy this book from
  • Birds of the Indonesian Archipelago: Greater Sundas and Wallacea

    | By James A Eaton, Bas van Balen, Nick W Brickle & Frank E Rheindt | Lynx Edicions | 2016 | Hardback | 496 pages, 2500+ colour illustrations, 1300+ colour distribution maps | ISBN: 9788494189265 Buy this book from
  • Birds of the Philippines, Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, Sulawesi, the Lesser Sundas and the Moluccas

    | By Norman Arlott | William Collins (Harper Collins imprint) | 2018 | Hardback | 416 pages, 179 plates with colour illustrations; colour distribution maps | ISBN: 9780008102395 Buy this book from
  • BirdLife - Burung Indonesia

    To be the guardian of Indonesia’s wild birds and their habitats through working with people for sustainable development. To achieve this, Burung Indonesia has been working on: Promoting conservation of sites, species and habitats. Working with communities to promote collaborative conservation and natural resource management for sustainable development. Developing the organizational capacity for improved management of habitats, sites, and species. Founded in 2002 - Staff: 74 - Jl. Dadali 32, Bogor, ID, 16161 . Tel. +62 251 835 7222 Ext 101; Fax. +62 251 835 7961
  • Burung Indonesia

  • IdOU - Indonesian Ornithologists' Union

    IdOU is a non profit membership-based organisation with the following objective: “To advance the ornithology of Indonesia by promoting the study of all aspects of Indonesian birds”. IdOU was established with the help of PILI- NGO Movement, and inaugurated at the Centre for Biology Research, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, (Cibinong, 23 August 2004). IdOU publishes Kukila, as well as facilitating relevant scientific fora as seminar, symposia, workshop, and invited talks.
  • Ornithological Society of Indonesia

    Taman Burun TMII Bird Park, TMII, Jakarta (Timur) 13560. + 62 21 840 1722
  • Wildlife Conservaton Society – Indonesia Program (WCS-IP)

    The Wildlife Conservaton Society – Indonesia Program (WCS-IP) began working in Indonesia in 1965 and established a formal country program in 1991. Using a “muddy boots” method to conservation, we identify critical conservation issues, find sciencebased solutions to these problems, and achieve tangible, on-the-ground success that benefits wildlife and wild places…

Abbreviations Key

  • *See regional pages for national parks and reserves

    Observatory WebsiteSatellite View
  • Indonesia National Parks

    InformationSatellite View
    An extensive list of the national parks with information about each and some nice photographs.
  • Nature Reserves

    WebsiteSatellite View
    Indonesia comprises a vast area in which various geological and climatological circumstances occur. Geological, the country can be divided in three parts. Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and Bali, together with parts of the Philipines, Thailand and Malaysia, lie on the Sunda continental shelf whereas Irian Jaya, together with Australia lies on the Sahul continental shelf. The sea bottom around Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara and Maluku forms no continuous shelf. These islands are seperated by very deep seas.
Guides & Tour Operators
  • Birding Ecotours

    Tour Operator
    The fauna of the vast island country of Indonesia is characterised by high levels of biodiversity and endemism due to its distribution over a vast tropical archipelago.
  • Sultan Birding Tours

    Tour Operator
    Sultan birding tours based in Manado North Sulawesi of Indonesia, specialized in operating bird photography and bird watching within the island of Sulawesi (Tangkoko Nature Reserve, Tomohon Highland, Dumoga Bone national Park, Lore Lindu National Park), Halmahera and other birding destination in Indonesia…
  • Vacation Indonesia Tours

    Tour Operator
    Vacation Indonesia Tours, owned by Nurlin Djuni & Darwin Sumang, is your gateway to Indonesia. We can immerse you in our culture, heritage and our extraordinarily diverse natural history. The Islands of Indonesia are justly famous for birdwatching. Over 372 species have been recorded and many are found nowhere else. Nurlin Djuni specialises in Birdwatching/Holidays Tours in Sulawesi, Halmahera, Papua, Java, Bali, Kalimantan, Lesser Sundas and Sumatera
Trip Reports
  • 2017 [09 September] - Ross Gallardy - Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi, Sangihe, Talaud, Halmahera, & Moluccas

    PDF Report
    From June-August 2017, Melissa and I traveled independently throughout the Lesser Sundas, Sulawesi, Sangihe, Talaud and theMoluccas in Indonesia. In total we visited twenty-three separate islands. Since there are already many good reports that coverthe majority of this region, I have decided to just give brief overviews of each spot we visited mostly focusing on updatedlocations for target birds and some updated cost information. For additional information on the region check out the reportsfrom others (listed below) especially the reports from Gareth Knass which are still mostly current and very detailed. Forinformation on exact species lists for each location visited, search in eBird. Overall the trip went very well and we thoroughlyenjoyed our extended visit to Indonesia.
  • 2018 [08 August] - Mark Van Beirs - Sulawesi & Halmahera

    PDF Report
    The highlight of our recent ‘Best of Sulawesi and Halmahera’ tour was the amazing spectacle of displaying Wallace’s Standardwings deep in the jungle of Halmahera, where the intrepid Alfred Russell Wallace himself had witnessed it c160 years ago. Seeing these incredible birds-of-paradise perform so well at close range sure made a lasting impression.
  • 2018 [09 September] - Mike Nelson

    PDF Report
    With a tasty list of endemics, it’s no wonder our West Java and Sumatra tour is very popular and our third tour this year didn’t disappoint, notching up a total of 341 species, including a fantastic crop of endemics and local specialties.
  • 2018 [10 October] - Craig Robson - Sulawesi, Morotai & Halmahera

    PDF Report
    With an ever-evolving and improving itinerary this fantastic tour continues to produce the goods. With our first ever visit to the North Moluccan islands of Morotai and Bacan, the addition of Obi as a post-tour extension, and further explorations in the Lompobattang mountains of SW Sulawesi, we were able to amass an impressive total of 320 species...
  • 2018 [10 October] - james Eaton - Banda Sea Cruise

    PDF Report
    The 4,000km long Indonesian archipelago, stretching east to west across three time zones, is host to more than 300 endemic birds. With more than 18,000 islands, it is almost impossible to see all of those endemics, and a considerable number are amongst the most difficult species on earth to see because they inhabit remote islands where there are no airports and boat travel is both slow and unpredictable.
  • 2018 [12 December] - Michael Grunwell - Timor & Sumba

    PDF Report
    ...Olive-headed lorikeets were common in the highest forest constantly screeching and flying through the treetops but very difficult to get a decent view. Timor whistling flycatcher were regular up here and I fluked onto a tricoloured brush-finch...
  • 2019 [05 May] - Carlos Bocos - Sumatra & Java

    PDF Report
    Sumatra and West Java, one of the classic birding tours in Asia, was again an amazing journey through some of the best spots in the whole continent.
  • 2019 [07 July] - Sumaraja - Simeulue, Mentawai and Belitung

    PDF Report
    Situated in the Karimata Strait between Sumatra and Borneo, Bangka and Belitung are surprisingly large islands that share a number of Greater Sundas endemics, though the number of Bornean taxa here found on the islands reveal their closer association to the world’s third largest island. Between the two islands there are several distinctions too, one of which is the natunensis race of Crested Serpent Eagle, found only on Belitung and Natuna.
  • 2019 [08 August] - Mike Nelson - Sumatra & Java

    PDF Report
    The two huge islands of Sumatra and Java comprise half of the Greater Sundas. From steamy lowlands to high volcanic peaks these two islands boast over 80 endemic bird species, a number that makes them a priority for many avid birders. Our
  • 2019 [09 September - Mike Nelson - Sumba, Rote, Timor, Flores and Komodo

    PDF Report
    The Indonesian archipelago is home to just over 600 endemics and within Wallacea itself there are roughly around 265, over 40% of the close to 700 species recorded, and this number continues to grow with the ever-changing taxonomic picture. It is for this reason that the Lesser Sundas are such a magnet for birders and this year’s tour was filled with many of those endemics. Of the 230 species we recorded 77 are endemic with three heard only, these included such sought-after species as Flores Scops Owl showing amazingly well, Bare-throated Whistler and its amazing song, Red-naped Fruit Dove, Rote Boobook in drooping-wing display, colourful Iris and Marigold Lorikeets and concluded with monstrous Komodo Dragons feet away.
  • 2019 [11 November] - Mike Nelson - Sulawesi & Halmahera

    PDF Report
    When Alfred Russel Wallace arrived on Sulawesi, he noticed that the species were much more Australasian here compared with the Malay Archipelago.
Places to Stay
  • Nihiwatu

    For trekkers there are incredible waterfalls and beaches to discover and while hiking through the tropical forests you can also search for the indigenous birds of Sumba Island. If you are looking for adventure, true natural beauty or just relaxing and really getting away to another world, Nihiwatu Resort, in Indonesia is the place to be.
Other Links
  • Birding in Indonesia

    Indonesia consists of thousands of islands and more than 1500 species of birds are recorded in the country. Many of these islands are of great biological value. There are hundreds of nature reserves. I will describe a few of these, starting with some on Java, Bali and Lombok. In 1994 my wife and I spent five weeks on these islands. The pressure on bird habitats here is very high and many species are rather scarce as a result of massive capture for the pet trade. But still many places are worth a birding visit.
  • Birding on Bali

    The Bali Barat National Park is located on the north west tip of Bali. This reserve is the last site for the endangered Bali Myna. At Tegal Bunder it is possible to visit the Bali Myna project release centre. Pulau Menjangan is a small island that belongs to the reserve. Here are very beautiful coral reefs and it is a good spot for Lemon-bellied White-eye. The park is pretty much left alone by the thousands of tourists that visit Bali each year.
  • Birding on Java

    A number of different locations with access details, checklists etc.
  • Burung-Nusantara - Birds-Indonesia

    Birding and bird conservation in Indonesia. Site-by-site birdwatching guides, maps, birding trip reports, Indonesia bird checklists, listings of local guides & services, photo galleries, local bird conservation groups, bird conservation projects, birding ID forums and more
  • Javan Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus bartelsi

    Until recently, little was known about this enigmatic bird of prey, but ecological research, including radio tracking, has provided information on prey species, breeding biology and the home range of non-breeding males
  • Operation Wallacia

    Operation Wallacea is a series of scientific wildlife survey and conservation expeditions to a remote corner of the island of Sulawesi. It has been running wildlife research and community development projects in SE Sulawesi for the last 6 years. In 2001 there were nearly 300 mainly University students, together with 35 scientists, a professional photographer, an artist, expert trackers and forest support teams, diving staff and extensive logistics team to support the wide range of projects completed.
  • Project Birdwatch

    To develop locally owned, low-cost, ecotourism cooperatives which enable wild bird trappers and sellers to work as birdwatching guides and tour organizers. To promote conservation of threatened bird populations and draw wider attention to unsustainable practices in the existing wild-caught bird trade.

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