State of Goiás

Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda ©Lee Dingain Website

Goiás is a state of Brazil, located in the central part of the country. The most central of the Brazilian states and most populous of the region, its neighbouring states are (from north clockwise) Tocantins, Bahia, Minas Gerais, the Federal District, Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso.

The Great Central West Region, consisting of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and the Brazilian Federal District, is the fastest-growing region of Brazil. The population of Goiás state is still growing very quickly at over seven million people. However, outside the Federal District and the Goiânia metropolitan region (with a population approaching three million) most of Goiás is very thinly populated. The chief concentration of settlement is in the southeast, in the area of Goiânia (Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia), across the border from Minas Gerais, (Catalão, Rio Verde, Jataí, and Caldas Novas), and around the Federal District (Formosa, Planaltina de Goiás, and Luziânia).

Goiás is characterised by a landscape of chapadões (plateaus) and lies wholly within the Brazilian Highlands and itself occupies a large plateau, the vast almost level surface of which stands between 750 m and 900 m with the state’s highest point being Pouso Alto, at 1676 meters, in the Chapada dos Veadeiros. The plateau forms the divide between three of Brazil’s largest river systems: to the south Goiás is drained by the Paranaíba River, a tributary of the Paraná River; to the east it is drained by tributaries of the São Francisco River; and northward the state is drained by the Araguaia River and the Tocantins River and their tributaries. Other major rivers in the state are the Meia Ponte, Aporé, São Marcos, Corumbá River, Claro, Maranhão, Paranã and Preto. None of these rivers is navigable except for short distances by small craft.

Birding Goiás

The climate of the plateau is tropical. Average monthly temperatures vary from 26°C in the warmest month to 22°C in the coldest. The year is divided into a rainy season (October to March) and a dry season (April to September). Average annual rainfall is about 1,700 mm, but this varies due to elevation and microclimate.

Parque Nacional

Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros – ©MTur Destinos, Public domain via Wikimedia Commons

At the Emas National Park in the municipality of Mineiros, it is possible to observe typical fauna and flora of the region. At the Chapada dos Veadeiros the attractions are the canyons, valleys, rapids and waterfalls. Other attractions include Caldas Novas, with its hot water wells attracting more than one million tourists per year.

The state is covered with a woodland savanna known in Brazil as campo cerrado, although there are still tropical forests along the rivers. This cerrado has been seriously diminished in recent years due to cattle raising and soybean farming with great loss of animal life and forest cover. Despite this, over 700 bird species have been recorded in the state. There also some projects in the state to establish Agroforestry to re-establish native flora and, consequently restore local habitat for wildlife.

Number of Species
  • Number of bird species: 701

    (As at June 2024)
  • Avibase

    PDF Checklist
    This checklist includes all bird species found in Goiás , based on the best information available at this time. It is based on a wide variety of sources that I collated over many years. I am pleased to offer these checklists as a service to birdwatchers. If you find any error, please do not hesitate to report them.
Museums & Universities
  • Universidade Federal de Goi


Abbreviations Key

  • NP Chapada Diamantina National Park

    InformationSatellite View
    The flora and fauna are highly varied. Although there are few large mammals, there is a wide variety of reptiles, amphibians, birds, insects and small mammals. The flora mainly consists of small scrubland bushes, orchids and cactus…
  • NP Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park

    InformationSatellite View
    Chapada dos Veadeiros is in Goiás, in the municipal district of Alto Paraíso de Goiás, about 220km to the north of Brasília and 400km of Goiânia…
  • NP Emas National Park

    InformationSatellite View
    Emas National Park shows a typical cerrado ecosystem; a treeless savannah with tall termite houses and an interesting amount of wildlife: the giant anteater, the maned wolf, giant armadillo, pampas deer and the namesake greater rhea, among others.
  • NR Professor José Ângelo Rizzo Biological Reserve

    InformationSatellite View
    The reserve is of interest for its vegetation, geological formation, wildlife and scenic beauty.[2] The area includes slopes of the Sierra, and is well preserved. It displays cerrado characteristics, including the presence of endemic species.
  • NR Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Mata Funda - Alto Paraiso

    Observatory WebsiteSatellite View
    Alto Paraiso Environmental Protection Area
  • SP Terra Ronca State Park

    InformationSatellite View
    The Terra Ronca State Park was created by decree nr. 10,879 of 7 July 1989 and had its area and boundaries established by decree nr. 4,700 of 21 August 1996, covering the municipality of São Domingos. Around the state park they created the environmental protection area (APA).
Guides & Tour Operators
  • Brazil Birding Experts

    Tour Operator
    Brazil Birding Experts is a Brazilian based company specialized in Birding Tours all around the country...
Trip Reports
  • 2022 [06 June] - Rob Jansen

    PDF Report
    Emas NP lies in Goiás State, right on the border of the state Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. Be aware of the 1 hour time difference when crossing over to Goiás State. On our way from the Pantanal we had a Southern Tamandua right next to the highway eating termites! Emas NP preserves 130.000 hectares of cerrado habitat, and is unique in harbouring many bird and mammal specialties of this kind of habitat. There are two different entrances to the park.
Places to Stay
  • Pousada Casa das Flores - Chapada dos Veadeiros

    Facebook Page
    The Chapada dos Veadeiros is a region very famous for its natural beauty and excellent walks. Located northeast of the state of Goiás, it is one of the most beautiful regions of Brazil.
  • Pousada Villa das Pedras - Piren

    Pousada Villa das Pedras was inaugurated at the beginning of the year of 1999 and came to offer a different place, pleasant, cozy and that can meet the needs of the people who visit Pirenópolis. We aim to win the charisma of our guests by offering a good service and always increasing our establishment.

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