State of Goiás

Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda ©Lee Dingain Website
Birding Goiás

Goiás is a state of Brazil, located in the central part of the country. The most central of the Brazilian states and most populous of the region, Goiás is characterized by a landscape of chapadões (plateaus). In the height of the drought season, from June to September, the lack of rain makes the level of the Araguaia River go down and exposes almost 2 km (1 mile) of beaches, making it the main attraction of the State. At the Emas National Park in the municipality of Mineiros, it is possible to observe the typical fauna and flora from the region. Neighboring states are (from north clockwise) Tocantins, Bahia, Minas Gerais, the Federal District, Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso. At the Chapada dos Veadeiros the attractions are the canyons, valleys, rapids and waterfalls. Other attractions are the historical city of Goiás (or Old Goiás), 132 km (82 miles) from Goiânia, established in the beginning of 18th Century, and Caldas Novas, with its hot water wells attracting more than one million tourists per year.

Goiás lies wholly within the Brazilian Highlands, which are located in the center of the country. It occupies a large plateau, the vast almost level surface of which stands between 750 and 900 m above sea level and forms the divide between three of Brazil’s largest river systems: to the south Goiás is drained by the Paranaíba River, a tributary of the Paraná River; to the east it is drained by tributaries of the São Francisco River; and northward the state is drained by the Araguaia River and the Tocantins River and their tributaries.The state’s highest point is Pouso Alto, at 1676 meters above sea level, in the Chapada dos Veadeiros.Other major rivers in the state are the Meia Ponte, Aporé, São Marcos, Corumbá River, Claro, Paranã, Maranhão, Paranã and Preto. None of these rivers is navigable except for short distances by small craft.The state is covered with a woodland savanna known in Brazil as campo cerrado, although there are still tropical forests along the rivers. This cerrado has been seriously diminished in recent years due to cattle raising and soybean farming with great loss of animal life and forest cover.The climate of the plateau is tropical. Average monthly temperatures vary from 26°C (78.8°F) in the warmest month to 22°C (71.6°F) in the coldest. The year is divided into a rainy season (October–March) and a dry season (April–September). Average annual rainfall is about 1,700 mm, but this varies due to elevation and microclimate.The Great Central West Region, consisting of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and the Brazilian Federal District, is among the fastest-growing regions of Brazil. The population of Goiás state tripled in size in the period from 1950 to 1980 and is still growing very quickly. However, outside the Federal District and the Goiânia metropolitan region (with a population of over a million) most of Goiás is very thinly populated. The chief concentration of settlement is in the southeast, in the area of Goiânia (Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia), across the border from Minas Gerais, (Catalão, Rio Verde, Jataí, and Caldas Novas), and around the Federal District (Formosa, Planaltina de Goiás, and Luziânia).

Number of Species
  • Number of bird species: 648

    (As at May 2019)
Museums & Universities
  • Universidade Federal de Goi


Abbreviations Key

  • NP Chapada Diamantina National Park

    InformationSatellite View
    The flora and fauna are highly varied. Although there are few large mammals, there is a wide variety of reptiles, amphibians, birds, insects and small mammals. The flora mainly consists of small scrubland bushes, orchids and cactus…
  • NP Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park

    InformationSatellite View
    Chapada dos Veadeiros is in Goiás, in the municipal district of Alto Paraíso de Goiás, about 220km to the north of Brasília and 400km of Goiânia…
  • NP Emas National Park

    InformationSatellite View
    Emas National Park shows a typical cerrado ecosystem; a treeless savannah with tall termite houses and an interesting amount of wildlife: the giant anteater, the maned wolf, giant armadillo, pampas deer and the namesake greater rhea, among others.
  • NR Professor José Ângelo Rizzo Biological Reserve

    InformationSatellite View
    The reserve is of interest for its vegetation, geological formation, wildlife and scenic beauty.[2] The area includes slopes of the Sierra, and is well preserved. It displays cerrado characteristics, including the presence of endemic species.
  • NR Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Mata Funda - Alto Paraiso

    Observatory WebsiteSatellite View
    Alto Paraiso Environmental Protection Area
  • SP Terra Ronca State Park

    InformationSatellite View
    The Terra Ronca State Park was created by decree nr. 10,879 of 7 July 1989 and had its area and boundaries established by decree nr. 4,700 of 21 August 1996, covering the municipality of São Domingos. Around the state park they created the environmental protection area (APA).
Trip Reports

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  • 2012 [01 January] - Derek Kverno - Chapada dos Veadeiros

    Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros is the nearest significant reserve to Brasilia, and I had long romanticized about birding its rocky wilderness, which is home to standout Cerrado specialties such as the Blue Finch, Horned Sungem, and Brazilian Merganser…
Places to Stay

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  • Pousada Casa das Flores - Chapada dos Veadeiros

    Facebook Page
    The Chapada dos Veadeiros is a region very famous for its natural beauty and excellent walks. Located northeast of the state of Goiás, it is one of the most beautiful regions of Brazil.
  • Pousada Villa das Pedras - Piren

    Pousada Villa das Pedras was inaugurated at the beginning of the year of 1999 and came to offer a different place, pleasant, cozy and that can meet the needs of the people who visit Pirenópolis. We aim to win the charisma of our guests by offering a good service and always increasing our establishment.

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