Alcedinidae – Kingfishers
Alcedinidae are a group of small to medium-sized, brightly coloured birds in the order Coraciiformes. They have a cosmopolitan distribution, with most species found outside of the Americas. The group is treated either as a single family, or as a suborder Alcedines containing three families, Alcedinidae (river kingfishers), Halcyonidae (tree kingfishers), and Cerylidae (water kingfishers).
114 species of kingfishers are described. All have large heads, long, sharp, pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. Most species have bright plumage with few differences between the sexes. Most species are tropical in distribution, and a slight majority are found only in forests. They consume a wide range of prey, as well as fish, usually caught by swooping down from a perch. While kingfishers are usually thought to live near rivers and eat fish, most species live away from water and eat small invertebrates. Like other members of their order, they nest in cavities, usually tunnels dug into the natural or artificial banks in the ground. A quarter of all kingfishers nest in abandoned termite nests. A few species, principally insular forms, are threatened with extinction. In Britain, the word ‘kingfisher’ normally refers to the common kingfisher.
The smallest species of kingfisher is the African Dwarf Kingfisher Ispidina lecontei, which averages 10.4g and 10 cm. The largest overall is the Giant Kingfisher Megaceryle maxima, at an average of 355g and 45cm. However, the familiar Australian kingfisher known as the Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae may be the heaviest species, since individuals exceeding 450g are not rare.
The plumage of most kingfishers is bright, with green and blue being the most common colours. The brightness of the colours is neither the product of iridescence (except in the American kingfishers) or pigments, but is instead caused by the structure of the feathers, which causes scattering of blue light (the Tyndall effect). In most species, no overt differences between the sexes exist; when differences occur, they are quite small (less than 10%).
The kingfishers have long, dagger-like bills. The bill is usually longer and more compressed in species that hunt fish, and shorter and more broad in species that hunt prey off the ground. The largest and most atypical bill is that of the Shovel-billed Kookaburra, which is used to dig through the forest floor in search of prey. Species generally have short legs, although species that feed on the ground have longer tarsi. Most species have four toes, three of which are forward-pointing.
The irises of most species are dark brown. The kingfishers have excellent vision; they are capable of binocular vision and are thought in particular to have good colour vision. They have restricted movement of their eyes within the eye sockets, instead using head movements to track prey. In addition, they are capable of compensating for the refraction of water and reflection when hunting prey underwater, and are able to judge depth under water accurately. They also have nictitating membranes that cover the eyes to protect them when they hit the water; the pied kingfisher has a bony plate which slides across the eye when it hits the water.
The kingfishers have a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring throughout the world’s tropical and temperate regions. They are absent from the polar regions and some of the world’s driest deserts. A number of species have reached islands groups, particularly those in the south and east Pacific Ocean. The Old World tropics and Australasia are the core areas for this group. Europe and North America north of Mexico are very poorly represented, with only one common kingfisher species (Common Kingfisher and Belted Kingfisher respectively), and a couple of uncommon or very local species each: (Ringed Kingfisher and Green Kingfisher in the southwestern United States, Pied Kingfisher and White-throated Kingfisher in southeastern Europe). The six species occurring in the Americas are four closely related green kingfishers in the genus Chloroceryle and two large crested kingfishers in the genus Megaceryle. Even tropical South America has only five species plus the wintering Belted Kingfisher. In comparison, the African country of the Gambia has eight resident species in its 193 by 32 km area.
Individual species may have massive ranges, like the Common Kingfisher, which ranges from Ireland across Europe, North Africa, and Asia as far as the Solomon Islands in Australasia, or the Pied Kingfisher, which has a widespread distribution across Africa and Asia. Other species have much smaller ranges, particularly insular species which are endemic to single small islands. The Kofiau Paradise Kingfisher is restricted to the island of Kofiau off New Guinea.
Kingfishers occupy a wide range of habitats. While they are often associated with rivers and lakes, over half the world’s species are found in forests and forested streams. They also occupy a wide range of other habitats. The Red-backed Kingfisher of Australia lives in the driest deserts, although kingfishers are absent from other dry deserts like the Sahara. Other species live high in mountains, or in open woodland, and a number of species live on tropical coral atolls. Numerous species have adapted to human-modified habitats, particularly those adapted to woodlands, and may be found in cultivated and agricultural areas, as well as parks and gardens in towns and cities.
Kingfishers feed on a wide variety of prey. They are most famous for hunting and eating fish, and some species do specialise in catching fish, but other species take crustaceans, frogs and other amphibians, annelid worms, molluscs, insects, spiders, centipedes, reptiles (including snakes), and even birds and mammals. Individual species may specialise in a few items or take a wide variety of prey, and for species with large global distributions, different populations may have different diets. Woodland and forest kingfishers take mainly insects, particularly grasshoppers, whereas the water kingfishers are more specialised in taking fish. The Red-backed Kingfisher has been observed hammering into the mud nests of Fairy Martins to feed on their nestlings.
Kingfishers usually hunt from an exposed perch; when a prey item is observed, the kingfisher swoops down to snatch it, then returns to the perch. Kingfishers of all three sub-families beat larger prey on a perch to kill the prey and to dislodge or break protective spines and bones. Having beaten the prey, it is manipulated and then swallowed. The Shovel-billed Kookaburra uses its massive, wide bill as a shovel to dig for worms in soft mud.
Kingfishers are territorial, some species defending their territories vigorously. They are generally monogamous, although cooperative breeding has been observed in some species and is quite common in others, for example the Laughing Kookaburra, where helpers aid the dominant breeding pair in raising the young.
Like all Coraciiformes, the kingfishers are cavity nesters, with most species nesting in holes dug in the ground. These holes are usually in earth banks on the sides of rivers, lakes or man-made ditches. Some species may nest in holes in trees, the earth clinging to the roots of an uprooted tree, or arboreal nests of termites (termitarium). These termite nests are common in forest species. The nests take the form of a small chamber at the end of a tunnel. Nest-digging duties are shared between the sexes. During the initial excavations, the bird may fly at the chosen site with considerable force, and birds have injured themselves fatally while doing this. The length of the tunnels varies by species and location; nests in termitariums are necessarily much shorter than those dug into the earth, and nests in harder substrates are shorter than those in soft soil or sand. The longest tunnels recorded are those of the giant kingfisher, which have been found to be 8.5 m long.
The eggs of kingfishers are invariably white and glossy. The typical clutch size varies by species; some of the very large and very small species lay as few as two eggs per clutch, whereas others may lay 10 eggs, the typical is around three to six eggs. Both sexes incubate the eggs. The offspring of the kingfisher usually stay with the parents for 3–4 months.
There are, according to the IOC 114 species of Kingfishers in the family Alcedinidae; they are listed below.
Green-backed Kingfisher Actenoides monachus
Scaly-breasted Kingfisher Actenoides princeps
Moustached Kingfisher Actenoides bougainvillei
Spotted Wood Kingfisher Actenoides lindsayi
Hombron’s Kingfisher Actenoides hombroni
Rufous-collared Kingfisher Actenoides concretus
Hook-billed Kingfisher Melidora macrorrhina
Banded Kingfisher Lacedo pulchella
Common Paradise Kingfisher Tanysiptera galatea
Kofiau Paradise Kingfisher Tanysiptera ellioti
Biak Paradise Kingfisher Tanysiptera riedelii
Numfor Paradise Kingfisher Tanysiptera carolinae
Little Paradise Kingfisher Tanysiptera hydrocharis
Buff-breasted Paradise Kingfisher Tanysiptera sylvia
Black-capped Paradise Kingfisher Tanysiptera nigriceps
Red-breasted Paradise Kingfisher Tanysiptera nympha
Brown-headed Paradise Kingfisher Tanysiptera danae
Lilac Kingfisher Cittura cyanotis
Shovel-billed Kookaburra Clytoceyx rex
Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae
Blue-winged Kookaburra Dacelo leachii
Spangled Kookaburra Dacelo tyro
Rufous-bellied Kookaburra Dacelo gaudichaud
Glittering Kingfisher Caridonax fulgidus
Stork-billed Kingfisher Pelargopsis capensis
Great-billed Kingfisher Pelargopsis melanorhyncha
Brown-winged Kingfisher Pelargopsis amauroptera
Ruddy Kingfisher Halcyon coromanda
White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis
Javan Kingfisher Halcyon cyanoventris
Chocolate-backed Kingfisher Halcyon badia
Black-capped Kingfisher Halcyon pileata
Grey-headed Kingfisher Halcyon leucocephala
Brown-hooded Kingfisher Halcyon albiventris
Striped Kingfisher Halcyon chelicuti
Blue-breasted Kingfisher Halcyon malimbica
Woodland Kingfisher Halcyon senegalensis
Mangrove Kingfisher Halcyon senegaloides
Blue-black Kingfisher Todiramphus nigrocyaneus
Winchell’s Kingfisher Todiramphus winchelli
Blue-and-white Kingfisher Todiramphus diops
Lazuli Kingfisher Todiramphus lazuli
Forest Kingfisher Todiramphus macleayii
White-mantled Kingfisher Todiramphus albonotatus
Ultramarine Kingfisher Todiramphus leucopygius
Vanuatu Kingfisher Todiramphus farquhari
Sombre Kingfisher Todiramphus funebris
Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris
Torresian Kingfisher Todiramphus sordidus
Islet Kingfisher Todiramphus colonus
Mariana Kingfisher Todiramphus albicilla
Melanesian Kingfisher Todiramphus tristrami
Pacific Kingfisher Todiramphus sacer
Talaud Kingfisher Todiramphus enigma
Guam Kingfisher Todiramphus cinnamominus
Rusty-capped Kingfisher Todiramphus pelewensis
Pohnpei Kingfisher Todiramphus reichenbachii
Beach Kingfisher Todiramphus saurophagus
Sacred Kingfisher Todiramphus sanctus
Flat-billed Kingfisher Todiramphus recurvirostris
Cinnamon-banded Kingfisher Todiramphus australasia
Chattering Kingfisher Todiramphus tutus
Mewing Kingfisher Todiramphus ruficollaris
Society Kingfisher Todiramphus veneratus
Mangareva Kingfisher Todiramphus gambieri
Niau Kingfisher Todiramphus gertrudae
Marquesan Kingfisher Todiramphus godeffroyi
Red-backed Kingfisher Todiramphus pyrrhopygius
Yellow-billed Kingfisher Syma torotoro
Mountain Kingfisher Syma megarhyncha
African Dwarf Kingfisher Ispidina lecontei
African Pygmy Kingfisher Ispidina picta
Madagascan Pygmy Kingfisher Corythornis madagascariensis
White-bellied Kingfisher Corythornis leucogaster
Malachite Kingfisher Corythornis cristatus
Malagasy Kingfisher Corythornis vintsioides
Cerulean Kingfisher Alcedo coerulescens
Blue-banded Kingfisher Alcedo euryzona
Shining-blue Kingfisher Alcedo quadribrachys
Blue-eared Kingfisher Alcedo meninting
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis
Half-collared Kingfisher Alcedo semitorquata
Blyth’s Kingfisher Alcedo hercules
Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx erithaca
Philippine Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx melanurus
Sulawesi Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx fallax
Moluccan Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx lepidus
Dimorphic Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx margarethae
Sula Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx wallacii
Buru Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx cajeli
Papuan Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx solitarius
Manus Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx dispar
New Ireland Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx mulcatus
New Britain Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx sacerdotis
North Solomons Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx meeki
New Georgia Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx collectoris
Malaita Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx malaitae
Guadalcanal Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx nigromaxilla
Makira Dwarf Kingfisher Ceyx gentianus
Indigo-banded Kingfisher Ceyx cyanopectus
Southern Silvery Kingfisher Ceyx argentatus
Northern Silvery Kingfisher Ceyx flumenicola
Azure Kingfisher Ceyx azureus
Bismarck Kingfisher Ceyx websteri
Little Kingfisher Ceyx pusillus
American Pygmy Kingfisher Chloroceryle aenea
Green-and-rufous Kingfisher Chloroceryle inda
Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana
Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona
Crested Kingfisher Megaceryle lugubris
Giant Kingfisher Megaceryle maxima
Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle torquata
Belted Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon
Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis
African Pygmy-Kingfisher Ispidina pictaBirdLife Species AccountBirdLife species profile...
African Pygmy-Kingfisher Ispidina pictaSpecies AccountThe African pygmy kingfisher (Ispidina picta) is a small insectivorous kingfisher found in the Afrotropics, mostly in woodland habitats. Some texts refer to this species as Ceyx pictus.
African Pygmy-Kingfisher Ispidina pictaSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazonaSpecies AccountThe Amazon kingfisher (Chloroceryle amazona) is a resident breeding kingfisher in the lowlands of the American tropics from southern Mexico south through Central America to northern Argentina.
Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazonaCornell Species AccountThe Amazon Kingfisher is a resident of lakeshores and large-slow flowing rivers from northern Mexico south to central Argentina.
American Pygmy Kingfisher Chloroceryle aeneaCornell Species AccountThis tiny kingfisher is sparse, though perhaps often overlooked, throughout its large range in tropical lowlands. They are found along quiet streams in forest interior, as well as flooded várzea and swampy edges of lakes.
American Pygmy Kingfisher Chloroceryle aeneaSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Azure Kingfisher Alcedo azureaSpecies AccountThe Azure Kingfisher is a small kingfisher with a long slender black bill and a short tail. The head, neck, upper parts and breast sides are deep azure blue with a violet (purplish) sheen.
Azure Kingfisher Alcedo azureaSpecies AccountThe azure kingfisher (Ceyx azureus) is a small kingfisher (17–19 centimetres (6.7–7.5 in)), in the river kingfisher subfamily, Alcedininae. It is found in Northern and Eastern Australia and Tasmania, as well as the lowlands of New Guinea and neighbouring islands, and out to North Maluku and Romang.
Belted Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyonSpecies AccountThe belted kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon) is a large, conspicuous water kingfisher, the only member of that group commonly found in the northern United States and Canada
Belted Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyonCornell Species AccountWith its top-heavy physique, energetic flight, and piercing rattle, the Belted Kingfisher seems to have an air of self-importance as it patrols up and down rivers and shorelines.
Belted Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyonSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Black-capped Kingfisher Halcyon pileataSpecies AccountThe black-capped kingfisher (Halcyon pileata) is a tree kingfisher which is widely distributed in tropical Asia from India east to China, Korea and Southeast Asia.
Black-capped Kingfisher Halcyon pileataSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Blue-winged Kookaburra Dacelo leachiiSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Blue-winged Kookaburra Dacelo leachiiSpecies AccountThe blue-winged kookaburra (Dacelo leachii) is a large species of kingfisher native to northern Australia and southern New Guinea.
Blue-winged Kookaburra Dacelo leachiiSpecies AccountThe Blue-winged Kookaburra is a large kingfisher with a big square head and a long bill. It has a distinctive pale eye. The head is off-white with brown streaks, the shoulders are sky blue and it has a uniform blue rump.
Brown-hooded Kingfisher Halcyon albiventrisSpecies AccountThe brown-hooded kingfisher (Halcyon albiventris) is a species of bird in the subfamily Halcyoninae. It is found in Angola, Botswana, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Brown-hooded Kingfisher Halcyon albiventrisSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Buff-breasted Paradise-Kingfisher Tanysiptera sylviaSpecies AccountSize - 30-35cm, including tail streamers. Forehead, crown and shoulders royal blue, lower rump and long central tail feather white, black band through eye and extending to nape and lower back, underparts rich apricot and bill, legs bright orange-red. Female often with bent and broken tail feathers during breeding season. Juvenile duller with short tail feathers and a black bill.
Buff-breasted Paradise-Kingfisher Tanysiptera sylviaSpecies AccountThe buff-breasted paradise-kingfisher (Tanysiptera sylvia) is a bird in the tree kingfisher subfamily, Halcyoninae.
Buff-breasted Paradise-Kingfisher Tanysiptera sylviaSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Collared Kingfisher Halcyon chlorisSpecies Accounthe collared kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris) is a medium-sized kingfisher belonging to the subfamily Halcyoninae, the tree kingfishers. It is also known as the white-collared kingfisher or mangrove kingfisher.
Collared Kingfisher Todirhamphus chlorisSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Collared Kingfisher Todirhamphus chlorisIUCN Species Status
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthisSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthisSpecies AccountThe common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) also known as the Eurasian kingfisher, and river kingfisher, is a small kingfisher with seven subspecies recognized within its wide distribution across Eurasia and North Africa. It is resident in much of its range, but migrates from areas where rivers freeze in winter.
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthisRSPB Species AccountKingfishers are small unmistakable bright blue and orange birds of slow moving or still water.
Crested Kingfisher Megaceryle lugubrisSpecies AccountThe crested kingfisher (Megaceryle lugubris) is a very large kingfisher that is native to parts of southern Asia, stretching eastwards from the Indian Subcontinent towards Japan.
Crested Kingfisher Megaceryle lugubrisIUCN Species Status
Crested Kingfisher Megaceryle lugubrisSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Forest Kingfisher Todirhamphus macleayiiSpecies AccountThe Forest Kingfisher has a dark royalblue head with pale turquoise on the back.There is a large white spot over the bill. The underparts are white.
Forest Kingfisher Todirhamphus macleayiiSpecies AccountThe forest kingfisher (Todiramphus macleayii), also known as the Macleay's or blue kingfisher, is a species of kingfisher in the subfamily Halcyoninae, also known as tree kingfishers. It is a predominantly blue and white bird. It is found in Indonesia, New Guinea and coastal eastern and northern Australia. Like many other kingfishers, it hunts invertebrates and small frogs and lizards.
Giant Kingfisher Megaceryle maximaSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Giant Kingfisher Megaceryle maximaSpecies AccountThe giant kingfisher (Megaceryle maxima) is the largest kingfisher in Africa, where it is a resident breeding bird over most of the continent south of the Sahara Desert other than the arid southwest.
Giant Kingfisher Megaceryle maximaBirdLife Species AccountBirdLife species profile...
Glittering Kingfisher Caridonax fulgidusSpecies AccountThe glittering kingfisher or white-rumped kingfisher (Caridonax fulgidus) is a species of bird in the Alcedinidae family. It is monotypic within the genus Caridonax. It is endemic to Indonesia, where its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.…
Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americanaSpecies AccountThe green kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana) is a resident breeding bird which occurs from southern Texas in the United States south through Central and South America to central Argentina.
Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americanaCornell Species AccountA widespread resident of the Neotropics, the Green Kingfisher can be found from south Texas and southeastern Arizona in the United States south to northern Chile and Argentina.
Grey-headed Kingfisher Halcyon leucocephalaBirdLife Species AccountBirdLife species profile
Grey-headed Kingfisher Halcyon leucocephalaSpecies Accounthttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grey-headed_kingfisher
Grey-headed Kingfisher Halcyon leucocephalaIUCN Species StatusIUCN species profile
Grey-headed Kingfisher Halcyon leucocephalaSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map
Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineaeSpecies AccountThe laughing kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae) is a carnivorous bird in the kingfisher subfamily Halcyoninae. Native to eastern mainland Australia, it has also been introduced to parts of New Zealand, Tasmania, and Western Australia. Male and female adults are similar in plumage, which is predominantly brown and white. A common and familiar bird, this species of kookaburra is well known for its laughing call.
Little Kingfisher Alcedo pusillaSpecies AccountThe little kingfisher (Ceyx pusillus) is a species of bird in the family Alcedinidae. It is found in open forest, woodland, swamps and mangroves in Australia (northern Queensland and north Northern Territory), Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.
Malachite Kingfisher Alcedo cristataBirdLife Species AccountFull species account...
Malachite Kingfisher Alcedo cristataSpecies AccountThe malachite kingfisher (Corythornis cristatus) is a river kingfisher which is widely distributed in Africa south of the Sahara. It is largely resident except for seasonal climate-related movements.
Micronesian Kingfisher Todirhamphus cinnamominusSpecies AccountThe Micronesian Kingfisher, Todiramphus cinnamominus, is a species of kingfisher from the Pacific Islands of Guam, Pohnpei and Palau. One of its subspecies, the Guam Kingfisher, is restricted to a captive breeding program following its extinction in the wild due to the introduced brown tree snake…
Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudisBirdLife Species AccountFull species account...
Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudisSpecies AccountThe pied kingfisher (Ceryle rudis) is a water kingfisher and is found widely distributed across Africa and Asia. Its black and white plumage, crest and the habit of hovering over clear lakes and rivers before diving for fish make it distinctive. Males have a double band across the breast while females have a single gorget that is often broken in the middle. They are usually found in pairs or small family parties. When perched, they often bob their head and flick up their tail.
Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle torquataSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle torquataCornell Species AccountThe Ringed Kingfisher is the largest kingfisher in the Americas. Its heavy, pale-based bill, disheveled crest, blue-gray plumage, white collar, and red belly are visible and recognizable even at a distance.
Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle torquataSpecies AccountThe ringed kingfisher (Megaceryle torquata) is a large, conspicuous and noisy kingfisher commonly found along the lower Rio Grande valley in southeasternmost Texas in the United States through Central America to Tierra del Fuego in South America.
Ruddy Kingfisher Halcyon coromandaSpecies AccountThe ruddy kingfisher (Halcyon coromanda) is a medium-sized tree kingfisher which is widely distributed in east and southeast Asia, ranging from South Korea and Japan in the north, south through the Philippines to the Sunda Islands, and west to China and India.
Ruddy Kingfisher Halcyon coromandaSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Sacred Kingfisher Todirhamphus sanctusSpecies AccountThe Sacred Kingfisher is a medium sized kingfisher. It has a turquoise back, turquoise blue rump and tail, buff-white underparts and a broad cream collar.
Sacred Kingfisher Todirhamphus sanctusSpecies AccountThe sacred kingfisher (Todiramphus sanctus) is a medium-sized woodland kingfisher that occurs in mangroves, woodlands, forests, and river valleys in Australia, New Zealand, and other parts of the western Pacific. In New Zealand the species is also known by its Māori name kōtare.
Sacred Kingfisher Todirhamphus sanctusSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Spangled Kookaburra Dacelo tyroSpecies AccountThe spangled kookaburra (Dacelo tyro) also called Aru giant kingfisher, is a little-known, but spectacular species of kookaburra found in the Aru Islands, Trans Fly savanna and grasslands of southern New Guinea and Australia. It has bright blue wings and tail, a white chest and belly, dark eyes, and a striking white-spotted black head. Practically nothing is known of its family life or breeding biology.
Spangled Kookaburra Dacelo tyroSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Stork-billed Kingfisher Pelargopsis capensisSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Stork-billed Kingfisher Pelargopsis capensisIUCN Species Status
Stork-billed Kingfisher Pelargopsis capensisSpecies AccountThe stork-billed kingfisher (Pelargopsis capensis, formerly Halcyon capensis), is a tree kingfisher which is widely but sparsely distributed in the tropical Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, from India to Indonesia. This kingfisher is resident throughout its range.
Striped Kingfisher Halcyon chelicutiBirdLife Species AccountBirdLife species profile...
Striped Kingfisher Halcyon chelicutiSpecies AccountThe striped kingfisher (Halcyon chelicuti) is a species of bird in the tree kingfisher subfamily. It was first described by Edward, Lord Stanley, in Salt's Voyage to Abyssinia.
Striped Kingfisher Halcyon chelicutiSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensisSpecies AccountThe white-throated kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis) also known as the white-breasted kingfisher or Smyrna kingfisher, is a tree kingfisher, widely distributed in Asia from Turkey east through the Indian subcontinent to the Philippines.
White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensisSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Woodland Kingfisher Halcyon senegalensisBirdLife Species AccountBirdLife species profile...
Woodland Kingfisher Halcyon senegalensisSpecies AccountThe woodland kingfisher (Halcyon senegalensis) is a tree kingfisher.
Woodland Kingfisher Halcyon senegalensisSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Number of bird species: 114
Kingfishers| By Charlie Hamilton James | Colin Baxter Photography | 1997 | Paperback | 48 pages, Colour photos | ISBN: 9781900455251 Buy this book from NHBS.com
Kingfishers| By David Chandler | Bloomsbury | 2017 | Paperback | 128 Pages | 200 Colour Photos | ISBN: 9781472933676 Buy this book from NHBS.com
Kingfishers and Kookaburras| (Jewels of the Australian Bush ) | By David Hollands | New Holland Publishers | 1999 | Hardback | 132 pages, 100 col photos, maps | ISBN: 9781876334321 Buy this book from NHBS.com
Kingfishers of the World| By L Knowles & JW Nitchen | Times Editions | 1995 | Hardback | 196 pages, 100 colour illustrations, 93 maps ISBN: 9789812044709 Buy this book from NHBS.com
Kingfishers, Bee-eaters & Rollers| By C Hiliary Fry, Kathie Fry & Alan Harris | Christopher Helm | 1999 | paperback | 328 pages, plates with colour illustrations | ISBN: 9780713652062 Buy this book from NHBS.com
Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazonaGalleryExcellent image
Belted Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyonGallery[Painted] Image
Belted Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyonGalleryExcellent image
Belted Kingfisher Megaceryle alcyonGalleryLots of [digiscoped] images
Blue-winged Kookaburra Dacelo leachiiGalleryExcellent image
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthisGalleryExcellent images
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthisGalleryExcellent image
Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineaeGalleryexcellent image of pair
Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudisGalleryImages
Stork-billed Kingfisher Pelargopsis capensisGalleryTotally stunning image!