Cotingidae – Cotingas, Fruiteaters & Allies
The cotingas are a large family of passerine bird species found in Central America and tropical South America. They live in deserts, open woodlands, coastal mangroves, and humid tropical forests. Cotingas face very serious threats from loss of their habitats. However, cotingas are generally birds of forests or forest edges, and mostly eat fruit or insects and fruit. Comparatively little is known about this diverse group, although all have broad bills with hooked tips, rounded wings, and strong legs. They may be the most diverse passerine family in body size, ranging from 8 centimetres to the world’s largest suboscine in the 50 centimetres male Amazonian Umbrellabird.
Cotingas vary widely in social structure. There is a roughly 50/50 divide in the family between species with biparental care, and those in which the males play no part in raising the young. The Purple-throated Fruitcrow lives in mixed-sex groups in which one female lays an egg and the others help provide insects to the chick.
In cotinga species where only the females care for the eggs and young, the males have striking courtship displays, often grouped together in leks. Such sexual selection results in the males of these species, including the Guianan Cock-of-the-rock, being brightly coloured, or decorated with plumes or wattles, like the umbrellabirds, with their umbrella-like crest and long throat wattles. Other lekking cotingids like the bellbirds, have distinctive and far-carrying calls. In such canopy-dwelling genera as Carpodectes, Cotinga, and Xipholena, males gather high in a single tree or in adjacent trees, but male cocks-of-the-rock, as befits their more terrestrial lives, give their elaborate displays in leks on the ground.
The females of both lekking and biparental species are duller than the males.
Nests range from tiny to very large. Many species lay a single egg in a nest so flimsy that the egg can be seen from underneath. This may make the nests hard for predators to find. Fruiteaters build more solid cup nests, and the cocks-of-the-rock attach their mud nests to cliffs.The nests may be open cups or little platforms with loosely woven plant material, usually placed in a tree. The clutches comprise one to four eggs. Incubation typically takes fifteen to twenty-eight days. Fledging usually occurs at 28-33 days
After recent revision of this family following DNA sequencing, most authorities agree that there are 66 species in this family; they are:
Red-crested Cotinga Ampelion rubrocristatus
Chestnut-crested Cotinga Ampelion rufaxilla
Swallow-tailed Cotinga Phibalura flavirostris
Palkachupa Cotinga Phibalura boliviana
White-cheeked Cotinga Zaratornis stresemanni
Chestnut-bellied Cotinga Doliornis remseni
Bay-vented Cotinga Doliornis sclateri
Peruvian Plantcutter Phytotoma raimondii
White-tipped Plantcutter Phytotoma rutila
Rufous-tailed Plantcutter Phytotoma rara
Hooded Berryeater Carpornis cucullata
Black-headed Berryeater Carpornis melanocephala
Green-and-black Fruiteater Pipreola riefferii
Band-tailed Fruiteater Pipreola intermedia
Barred Fruiteater Pipreola arcuata
Golden-breasted Fruiteater Pipreola aureopectus
Orange-breasted Fruiteater Pipreola jucunda
Black-chested Fruiteater Pipreola lubomirskii
Masked Fruiteater Pipreola pulchra
Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater Pipreola frontalis
Fiery-throated Fruiteater Pipreola chlorolepidota
Handsome Fruiteater Pipreola formosa
Red-banded Fruiteater Pipreola whitelyi
Scaled Fruiteater Ampelioides tschudii
Guianan Cock-of-the-rock Rupicola rupicola
Andean Cock-of-the-rock Rupicola peruvianus
Guianan Red Cotinga Phoenicircus carnifex
Black-necked Red Cotinga Phoenicircus nigricollis
Lovely Cotinga Cotinga amabilis
Turquoise Cotinga Cotinga ridgwayi
Blue Cotinga Cotinga nattererii
Plum-throated Cotinga Cotinga maynana
Purple-breasted Cotinga Cotinga cotinga
Banded Cotinga Cotinga maculata
Spangled Cotinga Cotinga cayana
Three-wattled Bellbird Procnias tricarunculatus
White Bellbird Procnias albus
Bearded Bellbird Procnias averano
Bare-throated Bellbird Procnias nudicollis
Black-and-gold Cotinga Tijuca atra
Grey-winged Cotinga Tijuca condita
Chestnut-capped Piha Lipaugus weberi
Dusky Piha Lipaugus fuscocinereus
Scimitar-winged Piha Lipaugus uropygialis
Rufous Piha Lipaugus unirufus
Screaming Piha Lipaugus vociferans
Cinnamon-vented Piha Lipaugus lanioides
Rose-collared Piha Lipaugus streptophorus
Black-faced Cotinga Conioptilon mcilhennyi
Grey-tailed Piha Snowornis subalaris
Olivaceous Piha Snowornis cryptolophus
Purple-throated Cotinga Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema
Pompadour Cotinga Xipholena punicea
White-tailed Cotinga Xipholena lamellipennis
White-winged Cotinga Xipholena atropurpurea
Black-tipped Cotinga Carpodectes hopkei
Snowy Cotinga Carpodectes nitidus
Yellow-billed Cotinga Carpodectes antoniae
Bare-necked Fruitcrow Gymnoderus foetidus
Purple-throated Fruitcrow Querula purpurata
Crimson Fruitcrow Haematoderus militaris
Red-ruffed Fruitcrow Pyroderus scutatus
Capuchinbird Perissocephalus tricolor
Bare-necked Umbrellabird Cephalopterus glabricollis
Amazonian Umbrellabird Cephalopterus ornatus
Long-wattled Umbrellabird Cephalopterus penduliger
Blue Cotinga Cotinga nattereriiBirdLife Species AccountThis species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion
Blue Cotinga Cotinga nattereriiSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map
Blue Cotinga Cotinga nattereriiSpecies AccountThe blue cotinga (Cotinga nattererii) is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae. It is found in Colombia, north-west Ecuador, eastern and central Panama and western Venezuela in tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest.
Blue Cotinga Cotinga nattereriiCornell Species AccountA brilliantly-colored, turquoise-blue songbird of humid, tropical forests, the Blue Cotinga has a restricted range and is only found in parts of Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador.
Blue Cotinga Cotinga nattereriiHBW Species AccountTaxonomy: Ampelis Nattererii Boissonneau, 1840, “Bogotá” [presumably from lower altitude in adjacent Magdalena Valley], Colombia. May form a superspecies with C. amabilis, C. ridgwayi, C. maynana, C. cotinga and C. maculata, and all sometimes treated as conspecific. Monotypic.
Pompadour Cotinga Xipholena puniceaBirdLife Species AccountThis species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable
Pompadour Cotinga Xipholena puniceaHBW Species AccountTaxonomy: Turdus puniceus Pallas, 1764, South America = Surinam. Forms a superspecies with X. lamellipennis and X. atropurpurea; only marginal range overlap with first of those in Brazil (W bank of lower R Tapajós, in W Pará). Monotypic.
Pompadour Cotinga Xipholena puniceaIUCN Species StatusThis species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion
Pompadour Cotinga Xipholena puniceaSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map
Pompadour Cotinga Xipholena puniceaSpecies AccountThe pompadour cotinga (Xipholena punicea) is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae, the cotingas.
Pompadour Cotinga Xipholena puniceaCornell Species AccountThe Pompadour Cotinga is one of those birds that makes the Neotropical avifauna one of the gaudiest collections of organisms on the planet. Males are a striking metallic burgundy with bright white wings; females are charcoal gray with a white belly and blackish wings.
Purple-breasted Cotinga Cotinga cotingaSpecies AccountThe purple-breasted cotinga (Cotinga cotinga) is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.
Purple-breasted Cotinga Cotinga cotingaCornell Species AccountThe color of the upperparts in the male Purple-breasted Cotinga is a deep blue, rather than the pale turquoise-blue of the rather larger male Spangled Cotinga (Cotinga cayana), which species is the only broadly sympatric congener.
Purple-breasted Cotinga Cotinga cotingaBirdLife Species Account
Purple-breasted Cotinga Cotinga cotingaSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map
Purple-breasted Cotinga Cotinga cotingaHBW Species AccountTaxonomy: [Ampelis] Cotinga Linnaeus, 1766, Belém, Pará, Brazil. May form a superspecies with C. amabilis, C. ridgwayi, C. nattererii, C. maynana and C. maculata, and all sometimes treated as conspecific. Probably closest to last of those, which similar in plumage and in male’s wingtip modification. Monotypic.
Spangled Cotinga Cotinga cayanaBirdLife Species Account
Spangled Cotinga Cotinga cayanaHBW Species AccountTaxonomy: [Ampelis] cayana Linnaeus, 1766, Cayenne. May be less closely related to others of genus than they are to one another. Monotypic.
Spangled Cotinga Cotinga cayanaIUCN Species StatusThis species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion
Spangled Cotinga Cotinga cayanaSpecies AccountThe spangled cotinga (Cotinga cayana) is a species of bird in the family Cotingidae, the cotingas. It is found in the canopy of the Amazon Rainforest in South America.
Spangled Cotinga Cotinga cayanaCornell Species AccountThe brightly-plumaged Spangled Cotinga is a widespread Amazonian species, ranging from the base of the Andes east to the Guyanas. It is a member of the genus Cotinga that frequents the canopy of terra firme forest. Males are bright turquoise blue with extensive black “spangling” on the wings and back, and has a light purple throat.
Spangled Cotinga Cotinga cayanaSpecies AccountImage (poor) & info
Number of bird species: 66
CotingaWebsiteThis is the journal of the Neo-tropical Bird Club