State of Roraima

Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox ©Lee Dingain Website
Birding Roraima

The state of Roraima lies in the far north of Brazil and is the northernmost and least populated state of Brazil, located in the Amazon region. It borders the states of Amazonas and Pará, as well as the nations of Venezuela and Guyana. It is still a frontier zone with agriculture, forestry and mining impinging on the wild world and indigenous peoples. When its grasslands were discovered in the mid-eighteenth century they were thought ideal cattle country. During the late 1980s there was a massive gold rush here with an influx of as many as 50,000 garimpeiros – the area’s total population had been about 200,000 before. This influx in the northwest of the state was formerly the territory of the Yanomami Indians, a relatively recently discovered people.

The climate is tropical with an annual mean temperature of 26°C (78.8°F). Most of the state is located in the Amazon rainforest, with a small strip of savanna to the east. The state is rich in mineral deposits – especially gold, diamonds, cassiterite, bauxite, marble and copper. Many of these deposits are located in indigenous reserves, and illegal mining has resulted in frequent conflicts with the native population, especially that of the Yanomami and the Macuxi and allied groups.Except in the higher mountains where the climate is cooler but very wet, Roraima has an equatorial climate. This is a type of tropical climate in which there is no dry season – all months have mean precipitation values of at least 60 mm. It is usually found at latitudes within five degrees of the equator – which are dominated by the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The equatorial climate is denoted Af in the Köppen climate classification. Tropical rainforest is the natural vegetation in equatorial regions.The Monte Roraima National Park is located around one of the highest mountains of Venezuela, a 2,727 m high tepui known as Monte Roraima.

Number of Species
  • Number of bird species: 866

    (As at May 2019)

Abbreviations Key

  • NP Parque Nacional do Monte Roraima

    WebsiteSatellite View
    Monte Roraima National Park, created in 1989, covers an area of 116,000 hectares…
  • NR Estação Ecológico Ilha de Maracá

    InformationSatellite View
    The island of Maracá is located on the border between the Amazon rainforest and the savannas that extend through Venezuela and Guyana. Located in the middle Uraricoera, the island of Maracá covers 101 312 hectares
  • NR Reserva Ecológico do Xixuaú-Xiparinã (Associação Amazônia)

    WebpageSatellite View
    The Reserva Ecolôgica do Xixuaú - Xiparinã is situated on the right hand bank of the Rio Jauaperí which marks the border between the Brazilian states of Amazonas and Roraima. The reserve measures 172,000 hectares and is the only private nature reserve of this type in the Brazilian Amazon.
Trip Reports
  • 2018 [08 August] - Bret Whitney - Roraima (Brazil) Scouting Special

    The state of Roraima in northern Brazil is a land of biotic extremes: a Tepui archipelago in sea of palm-ribboned savannas, cerrados, campinas, and majestic hardwood forest. For several years Bret and I have talked (dreamed) of scouting out this remarkable corner of Brazil and this year we did just that, along with 10 other lucky birders. We drove through some awe-inspiring landscapes, saw some impressive birds, overshot a couple turnoffs (we eventually got to where we needed to go!) and managed to keep our feet dry most of the time, despite the paucity of dry land due to a prolonged rainy season. The trip was punctuated by many highlights; we were dazzled by a male Ruby Topaz, bewildered by whirling flocks of Tepui Swifts over Serra do Tepequem, and stunned by the crisp white dots lining the undertail of Rio Branco Antbird!

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