Oriolidae – Old World Orioles, Pitohuis & Figbirds
The Old World orioles (Oriolidae) are an Old World family of passerine birds. That comprises the figbirds in the genus Sphecotheres, and the Old World orioles in the genus Oriolus. Several other genera have been proposed to split up the genus Oriolus. For example, the African black-headed species are sometimes placed in the genus Baruffius. In 2011 the genus Turnagra was found to be placed within this family. The family is not related to the New World orioles, which are icterids, family Icteridae.
The orioles and figbirds are medium-sized passerines, around 20–30 cm in length, with the females only slightly smaller than the males. The beak is slightly curved and hooked, and, except in the figbirds, as long again as the head. The plumage of most species is bright and showy, although the females often have duller plumage than the males. The plumage of many Australasian orioles mimics that of friarbirds (a genus of large honeyeaters), probably to reduce aggression against the smaller orioles.
Orioles are monogamous, breeding in territorial pairs (although the Australasian Figbird, and possibly also the other figbirds, breed in loose colonies). Nesting sites may be chosen near aggressive species such as drongos, shrikes or friarbirds, which confer a degree of protection. The nest is a deep woven cup suspended like a hammock from a branch. They usually lay two or three eggs, but as many as six have been recorded.
The family is distributed across Africa, Europe, Asia, and Australia. The few temperate nesting species are migratory, and some tropical species also show seasonal movements. Orioles are arboreal and tend to feed in the canopy. Many species are able to survive in open forests and woodlands, although a few are restricted to closed forest. They are opportunistic omnivores, with the main components of their diet being fruit, berries, arthropods, and nectar.
According to the IOC there are 36 extant species of Orioles and Figbirds in the family Oriolidae; they are:
Green Figbird Sphecotheres viridis
Wetar Figbird Sphecotheres hypoleucus
Australasian Figbird Sphecotheres vieilloti
Northern Variable Pitohui Pitohui kirhocephalus
Raja Ampat Pitohui Pitohui cerviniventris
Southern Variable Pitohui Pitohui uropygialis
Hooded Pitohui Pitohui dichrous
Brown Oriole Oriolus szalayi
Dusky-brown Oriole Oriolus phaeochromus
Grey-collared Oriole Oriolus forsteni
Black-eared Oriole Oriolus bouroensis
Tanimbar Oriole Oriolus decipiens
Olive-brown Oriole Oriolus melanotis
Olive-backed Oriole Oriolus sagittatus
Green Oriole Oriolus flavocinctus
Dark-throated Oriole Oriolus xanthonotus
Philippine Oriole Oriolus steerii
White-lored Oriole Oriolus albiloris
Isabela Oriole Oriolus isabellae
Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus
Indian Golden Oriole Oriolus kundoo
African Golden Oriole Oriolus auratus
Slender-billed Oriole Oriolus tenuirostris
Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis
Green-headed Oriole Oriolus chlorocephalus
Sao Tome Oriole Oriolus crassirostris
Western Oriole Oriolus brachyrynchus
Ethiopian Oriole Oriolus monacha
Mountain Oriole Oriolus percivali
Black-headed Oriole Oriolus larvatus
Black-winged Oriole Oriolus nigripennis
Black-hooded Oriole Oriolus xanthornus
Black Oriole Oriolus hosii
Black-and-crimson Oriole Oriolus cruentus
Maroon Oriole Oriolus traillii
Silver Oriole Oriolus mellianus
Australasian Figbird Sphecotheres vieillotiHBW Species Account
Australasian Figbird Sphecotheres vieillotiSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Australasian Figbird Sphecotheres vieillotiSpecies AccountThe Australasian figbird (Sphecotheres vieilloti) is a conspicuous medium-sized passerine bird native to a wide range of wooded habitats in northern and eastern Australia, southern Papua New Guinea, and the Kai Islands in Indonesia
Black-headed Oriole Oriolus larvatusBirdLife Species AccountBirdLife species profile…
Black-headed Oriole Oriolus larvatusHBW Species AccountHBW species account...
Black-headed Oriole Oriolus larvatusSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolusSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolusSpecies AccountThe Eurasian golden oriole or simply golden oriole (Oriolus oriolus) is the only member of the oriole family of passerine birds breeding in Northern Hemisphere temperate regions. It is a summer migrant in Europe and western Asia and spends the winter season in central and southern Africa.
Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolusRSPB Species AccountBlackbird-sized the male has an unmistakable bright yellow body with black wings.
Maroon Oriole Oriolus trailliiHBW Species AccountTaxonomy: Pastor Traillii Vigors, 1832, no locality = Darjeeling, north India. Closely related to O. hosii, O. cruentus and, especially, O. mellianus; all, together with O. xanthornus, form the “Asian black-headed group”. Four subspecies recognized.
Maroon Oriole Oriolus trailliiSpecies AccountSound archive and distribution map.
Maroon Oriole Oriolus trailliiSpecies AccountThe maroon oriole (Oriolus traillii) is a species of bird in the family Oriolidae.
Number of bird species: 36