Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus ©Dubi Shapiro Website

Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital and largest city is Tbilisi with around one million inhabitants. Georgia covers a territory of just under 70,000 square kilometres (c.27,000 square miles) and has a population of around 3.75 million. Georgia is a country of exceptional beauty: diverse in nature, with rich and ancient history.

The country is mostly complex and mountainous. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range forms the northern border of Georgia. The main roads through the mountain range into Russian territory lead through the Roki Tunnel between Shida Kartli and North Ossetia and the Darial Gorge (in the Georgian region of Khevi). The southern portion of the country is bounded by the Lesser Caucasus Mountains. The Likhi Range divides the country into eastern and western halves. The highest peak is 5201m (Mount Shkhara) above sea level. The landscape within the nation’s boundaries is quite varied. Western Georgia’s landscape ranges from low-land marsh-forests, swamps, and temperate rainforests to eternal snows and glaciers, while the eastern part of the country even contains a small segment of semi-arid plains. So, due to Georgia’s specific geographic location, on a relatively small territory there are extremely diverse ecosystems from Alpine meadows to semi-deserts, wetlands, coastal landscape, numerous lakes and rivers, caves, magnificent mountain-chains and peaks covered with eternal snow.

Sno River Valley – © Vyacheslav Argenberg CC BY 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons

The climate of Georgia is also extremely diverse, considering the nation’s small size. There are two main climatic zones, roughly corresponding to the eastern and western parts of the country. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range plays an important role in moderating Georgia’s climate and protects the nation from the penetration of colder air masses from the north. The Lesser Caucasus Mountains partially protect the region from the influence of dry and hot air masses from the south. Much of western Georgia lies within the northern periphery of the humid subtropical zone with annual precipitation ranging from 39 to 98 in, reaching a maximum during the Autumn months. The climate of the region varies significantly with elevation and while much of the lowland areas of western Georgia are relatively warm throughout the year, the foothills and mountainous areas (including both the Greater and Lesser Caucasus Mountains) experience cool, wet summers and snowy winters (snow cover often exceeds 2 metres in many regions).

Eastern Georgia has a transitional climate from humid subtropical to continental. The region’s weather patterns are influenced both by dry Caspian air masses from the east and humid Black Sea air masses from the west. The penetration of humid air masses is often blocked by mountain ranges that separate the eastern and western parts of the nation. The wettest periods generally occur during spring and autumn, while winter and summer months tend to be the driest. Much of eastern Georgia experiences hot summers (especially in the low-lying areas) and relatively cold winters. As in the western parts of the nation, elevation plays an important role in eastern Georgia where climatic conditions above 1,500 metres are considerably colder than in the low-lying areas.

The variety of ecosystems conditions the richness of the flora and fauna of Georgia. The forests cover 40% (2,75 million hectares) of the whole territory. 5% of it can be considered as virgin forests, and 40% of it retains the original structure. Up to 5,000 species of angiospermous and gymnosperms and about 8,300 species of sporoparous plants are found in Georgia. 380 species of the plants are endemic to Georgia, and around 1,000 are endemic to the Caucasus. There are around 110 species of mammals, including a number of large carnivores that live in the forests, namely Brown bears, wolves, lynxes and Caucasian Leopards. There are also 48 species of reptiles, 11 species of amphibians and 160 of fish.

Birding Georgia

Given that, in Georgia there are more than 330 species of birds it is not surprising that there are several spectacular birdwatching locations, with very different characteristics. Each of them is interesting in terms of species composition. On a relatively small territory there is a multitude of diverse ecosystems. This makes for great birdwatching, because there is a lot to see in areas very close to each other where it is possible to see birds from totally different habitats, all in a short space of time.

Kolkheti National Park – ©Paata Vardanashvili CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons

Birders tend to target the ‘big five’ species that are hard to find elsewhere: Caucasian Snowcock, Caucasian Black Grouse, Great Rosefinch, Güldenstädt’s Redstart and Caucasian Chiffchaff, but there are other regional specialties, including: Twite (interior Asian form – a potential split), Red-fronted Serin, Wallcreeper, Citrine Wagtail, White-winged Snowfinch, Red-billed and Alpine Choughs, Chukar, Horned Lark (Shore Lark), Water Pipit, Greenish Warbler, Barred Warbler, Alpine Accentor, Common Rosefinch and dozens of other species. Common raptors include: Bearded Vulture, Griffon Vulture, Golden Eagle, Imperial Eagle, Peregrine Falcon, Long-legged Buzzard, and Levant Sparrowhawk. Interestingly, it is believed that the common pheasant (now spread around the world as a game bird) was once unique to Georgia.

  • Lasha Babuadze

    Georgia |

Number of Species
  • Number of bird species: 424

    (As at June 2024)

    National Bird - Pheasant Phasianus colchicus

  • Avibase

    PDF Checklist
    This checklist includes all bird species found in Georgia , based on the best information available at this time. It is based on a wide variety of sources that I collated over many years. I am pleased to offer these checklists as a service to birdwatchers. If you find any error, please do not hesitate to report them.
  • BirdList

  • Georgia Ornithological Society

    Georgia Ornithological Society - 2016 Checklist of Georgia Birds
  • Wikipedia

    Annotated List
    This is a list of the bird species recorded in the country of Georgia. The avifauna of Georgia include a total of 424 species.
  • eBird

Useful Reading

  • A Birdwatching Guide to Georgia

    | With Information on Other Wildlife | By L Gavashelishvili, R Gokhelashvili, Z Javakhishvili and D Tarkhnishvili | Georgian Centre for the Conservation of Wildlife | 2005 | Paperback | 131 pages, Col photos and maps | ISBN: 9789994077137 Buy this book from
  • A Wildlife Guide to Georgia

    | By Brecht de Meulenaer | Pelagic Publishing | 2024 | Paperback | 176 pages, colour photos | ISBN: 9781784273019 Buy this book from
  • Raptors and Owls of Georgia

    | By RA Galvez, L Gavashelishvili & Z Javakhishvili | Georgian Centre for the Conservation of Wildlife | 2005 | Paperback | 128 pages | ISBN: 9789994077182 Buy this book from
  • Vultures of Georgia & Caucasus

    | By Lexo Gavashelishcili | Georgian Center for the Conservation of Wildlife | 2005 | Paperback | 96 pages, colour photos, colour illustrations, colour distribution maps | ISBN: 9789994077199 Buy this book from
Useful Information
  • BirdLife

    Georgian Centre for the Conservation of Wildlife (GCCW) is the BirdLife Affiliate.
  • Bird Conservation Union of Georgia

    Bird Conservation Union of Georgia is a non-governmental, non-political, non-commercial charity organization, established to unite the efforts of persons whose general aim is conservation of Georgian birds and their habitats. Membership in BCUG is open to individuals and different organizations. Anyone can become a member of BCUG, if he or she recognizes the main aims of our Union, supports the BCUG development and in accordance with own possibilities participates in its activity. Members of BCUG can be citizens of Georgia and all other countries

    NACRES, a non-governmental and non-profit scientific organization, was founded in 1989 to research and safeguard biodiversity, especially endangered species in Georgia and the South Caucasus and to promote public awareness in the field of environmental protection. PO Box 20, GE-0179 Tbilisi - +995-32 2 23 37 06 -
  • SABUKO - Georgia Society for Nature Conservation

    SABUKO (Society for Nature Conservation) is Birdlife Partner in Georgia. Our main directions are conservation of species and their habitats.

Abbreviations Key

  • * List of protected areas of Georgia

    WebpageSatellite View
    The South Caucasian nation of Georgia is home to several protected areas, which receive protection because of their environmental, cultural or similar value. The oldest of these – now known as the Lagodekhi Protected Areas – dates back to 1912, when Georgia was part of the Russian Empire.
  • NP Algeti

    InformationSatellite View
    The Algeti National Park is a protected area in Georgia, in the southeast of the country. It lies in the region of Kvemo Kartli, within the Municipality of Tetritsqaro, some 60 km southwest of the nation’s capital, Tbilisi.
  • NP Borjomi-Kharagauli

    WebsiteSatellite View
    We have put together this new website for those who enjoy visiting National Parks, or who want to know more about Georgia’s Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park and the surrounding area. The National Park has a great variety of natural landscapes, historical and architectural monuments, resorts and settlements. The region also has a population with unique ethnographic and cultural features...
  • NP Kolkheti

    InformationSatellite View
    Kolkheti high-humid region is located in the Western part of Kolkheti lowland and is bordered by the Black Sea from Kobuleti to Ochamchire. In the East the cone shaped part of plane reaches Samtredia…
  • NP Lagodekhi Protected Areas

    InformationSatellite View
    It is one of the major reserves for the East Caucasian tur and also has many chamois and red deer. Major predators include Eurasian lynx, grey wolf, brown bear, and the raptors bearded vulture, eastern imperial eagle, golden eagle and steppe eagle. Altogether 150 species of birds, 53 mammals, 5 amphibians, 12 reptiles, and 4 fish are found in the reserves; 26 of the plants and more than 40 of the animals are in the Red Data Book of Georgia listing of rare and endangered species.
  • NP Mtirala

    InformationSatellite View
    Mtirala National Park is a protected area in Adjara region, Georgia. Covering approximately 15,698 hectares (38,790 acres) in the western Lesser Caucasus, it is situated between the Black Sea and the Adjara Mountains. It also adjoins Kintrishi Protected Areas. Fauna recorded are Brown bear, Roe deer, and Wild boar, while avifauna includes Booted eagle, Eagle owl and Golden oriole.
  • NP Tbilisi

    InformationSatellite View
    The national park was established in 1973 on the basis of the previously existing Saguramo National Reserve (established in 1946) and is the oldest national park in Georgia. The area of the park is 243 square kilometres (94 sq mi). The area of the park is mainly covered by trees and shrub of oak, hornbeam, and beech. The protected mammals in the park include red deer, lynx, Eurasian brown bear, red fox, and jackal.
  • NP Tusheti

    InformationSatellite View
    The Tusheti National Park in East Georgia is one of the eight new Protected Areas approved by Parliament of Georgia on 22 April 2003. The key faunal species in the park are Anatolian leopard (Panthera pardus ambornii), bear, chamois, falcon, Golden Eagle, lammergeier, lynx, mountain goat, wild goat, and wolf. The park is set in the Tusheti Mountainous region in the north-eastern part of the country. It is 205 kilometres (127 mi) away from Tbilisi with the en route Alvani lying 120 kilometres (75 mi) away.
  • NP Vashlovani

    InformationSatellite View
    Vashlovani State Reserve is notable for its unique, bad-land-like areas of desert and semi-desert steppe vegetation and arid and deciduous forests. It's also home to the great cliffs-of-the-canyons, known in the area as the "Sharp Walls", and the magnificent Alazani flood plains and forests.
  • NR Babaneuri Strict Nature Reserve

    InformationSatellite View
    The Nature Reserve is located at the foot of the Greater Caucasus in the vicinity of villages Babaneuri and Argoq, it also includes the Batsara-Babaneuri Protected Areas. The main objective is to protect up to 240 ha of zelkova (Zelkova carpinifolia) grove, trees that are featured in Regional Red List of Georgia.
  • NR Borjomi

    InformationSatellite View
  • NR Kintrishi Strict Nature Reserve

    InformationSatellite View
    Roughly 189 bird species, 65 mammal species, and 14 reptile species have also been observed in or around the reserve. The reserve is located in a bottleneck where more than 1 million migrating raptors of 35 species pass through during the autumn
  • NR Kobuleti Strict Nature Reserve

    InformationSatellite View
    Kobuleti Protected Areas provide habitat for migrating, nesting and wintering water birds including Gallinago media, which is on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Gallinago gallinago and many others
  • SNR Kintrishi Protected Landscape

    WebpageSatellite View
    The Kintrishi State Nature Reserve covers 18,893 hectares (46,690 acres)
  • Wetlands

    WebpageSatellite View
    The convention entered into force in Georgia on 7 June 1997. Georgia currently has 2 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Sites), with a surface area of 34,480 hectares.
Sightings, News & Forums
Guides & Tour Operators
  • Batumi Birding

    Tour Operator
    There are few places on earth where bird migration is as impressive as in Batumi. In 2008, the first Batumi Raptor Count made headlines when over 800,000 raptors were counted at this poorly known bottleneck. Since then, hundreds of birders have visited the place, and its fame has continued to grow.
  • BirdQuest

    Tour Operator
    TURKEY, GEORGIA & CYPRUS – the ‘Ottoman’ endemics and specialities tour
  • Birding Caucasus

    Tour Operator
    Birding Caucasus (a member of the Georgian Tourism Association) operates the diverse professionally organized birdwatching and other wildlife holidays in the Caucasus Region, including Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. Having years of successful experience and excellent knowledge of the region we are well suited to guarantee you a most exciting and delightful wildlife holidays.
  • Birding Ecotours

    Tour Operator
    Georgia: Eagles and Endemics in Fall
  • BirdwatchingTrips

    Tour Operator
    Georgia Where Russia Meets Europe And The Birds Are Amazing
  • Ecotours Georgia

    Tour Operator
    Ecotours Georgia offers weeklong trips to enjoy the
  • Georgia Travel

    Tour Operator
    Put together your own "must-see" and "must-do" list from among Georgia's varied attractions. Discover one-of-a-kind places you'll find only here. Get outside and back to nature in Georgia.
  • Georgia4You

    Tour Operator
    Company Ecotours Georgia was established by the wildlife conservationists and nature lowers with motto to develop sustainable tourism in Georgia, involve local people in tourism related projects and conserve Georgian flora and fauna.
  • HeatherLea

    Tour Operator
    Tour Operator
  • Limosa Holidays

    Tour Operator
    A 9-day small group birdwatching tour to Georgia looking for Western Palearctic specialities including Caucasian Snowcock, Caucasian Grouse, Güldenstädt’s Redstart and Great Rosefinch
  • NatureTrek

    Tour Operator
    The Republic of Georgia is a sovereign state situated in the Caucasus region of Eurasia, at the junction of eastern Europe and western Asia. It was a member state of the Soviet Union until independence in 1991.
  • Wild Ecotours

    Tour Operator
    A 10-day birding tour exploring semi-deserts, wetlands and the Caucasus for Georgia's specialties and migrating birds.
  • Wise Birding Holidays

    Tour Operator
    Target Birds: Caucasian Snowcock, Caspian Snowcock, Caucasian Black Grouse, Bearded Vulture, Great Rosefinch, Güldenstädt’s Redstart, Radde’s Accentor, Mountain Chiffchaff, Semi-collared Flycatcher, Menetrie’s Warbler, Green Warbler, Red-fronted Serin, White-throated Robin, Red-tailed Wheatear, Wallcreeper and many more!
Trip Reports
  • 2016 [04 April] - Jani Vastamäki - Caucasus & Lake Jandari

    ...Ananuri fortress hosted breeding pairs of both Ehrenbergs Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus samamisicus and Black Redstart ssp. ochruros. To present knowledge, female samamisicus is not separable from nominate. Note clear-cut whitish edges to secondaries and greyish upperparts...
  • 2018 [05 May] - Batumi Birding - Armenia & Georgia

    PDF Report
    Batumi Birding
  • 2018 [05 May] - Dani Lopez-Velasco

    PDF Report
    Our short tour to the High Caucasus of Georgia was a highly enjoyable and successful one. Most important, we had excellent views of all the Caucasian specialities: Caucasian Snowcock, Caucasian Grouse, Green Warbler, Caucasian (Mountain) Chiffchaff and (Caucasian) Great Rosefinch, amidst some spectacular scenery. We also found several sought-after species such as Bearded Vulture (Lammergeier), Krüper´s Nuthatch, no less than 7 Wallcreepers, giving amazing views, Semicollared Flycatcher, Red-fronted Serin and Common Rock Thrush, amongst others.
  • 2019 [04 April] - Alexander Rukhaia

    PDF Report
    On this particular trip a few photographers from the group have missed capturing a Güldenstädt's Redstart (Phoenicurus erythrogastrus) and a Great Rosefinch (Carpodacus rubicilla). We saw both birds up at almost 3000 meters, but the distance wouldn’t allow making proper images and also there was no option to walk further to the breeding site due to a deep snow, so sadly, at the end of the day we returned back to hotel without single footage of these elusive birds.
  • 2019 [04 April] - Julia Wittmann,

    PDF Report
    Our main reason to travel to Georgia was to see the avian specialties of the Caucasus. Caucasian Snowcock, Caucasian Grouse, Güldenstädt’s Redstart and Great Rosefinch are the big four of the mountains. But when we were there we found out that there is a lot more to see.
  • 2019 [05 May] - Alexander Rukhaia

    PDF Report
    This tour embraces all major and key birding hotspots of northern, eastern and southern Georgia; from the Greater to the Lesser Caucasus mountain range and to the country’s steppes in the east. The birding is undoubtedly remarkable, with a composition of diverse quintessential species typical to the region, as well as more widely spread in Europe and Central Asia.
  • 2019 [05 May] - Rod Standing - Georgia & Armenia

    PDF Report
    Georgia and Armenia! It’s hard to think of two more bird-rich and evocative countries in the Western Palearctic. So, when my brother Dom and I were looking at where to go for our first birding trip outside Israel, where Dom lives, the decision was easy.
  • 2019 [05 May] - Wendy Newnham

    ...Several tunnels had been built through the mountain where there was a threat of landslides and we did hear several landslides a few days later. It started to snow. We saw that there were a lot of migrant birds feeding up in the snow - Horned Lark, Northern Wheaters by the dozen, Water Pipits everywhere. There was nowhere really to park up but it was freezing and we weren’t dressed for the weather so we drove on...
  • 2019 [10 October] - Rie Traverling Female Ornithologist

    I arrived in Kutaisi with a direct flight from Copenhagen (both cheap and only 4 hours of flying with WizzAir). Before Mestia, I spent three nights in a small village close to Batumi, where my boyfriend was volunteering at a bird migration hotspot for the NGO Batumi Raptor Count.
  • 2022 [04 April] - Peter Prokosch & Christoph Zöckler

    Sponsored by the Georgian National Tourism Agency (GNTA) and under the lead of LT&C member Xenia Nossowa from XENOSTOURS, seven ornithologists from the UK, Germany, Italy and Norway in early April 2022 explored the attractiveness of Georgia for birdwatching tourism.
  • 2022 [05 May] - Alexander Rukhaia

    PDF Report
    ...The local attractions here, as usual, are woodpeckers, and it doesn't take us long to find several Middle Spotted, Lesser Spotted, Syrian, Black and European Green. As we continue the walk, we see more birds - mostly common woodland species, including singing Common Nightingales, but also a few Eurasian Hoopoes, a couple of Green Warblers, and plenty of Red-breasted Flycatchers. A half-asleep Eurasian Scops Owl, snuggled up in a tree, is another bright event of the day
  • 2022 [05 May] - Frans De Schamphelaere

    PDF Report
    Target species: Caucasian Snowcock, Caspian Snowcock, Caucasian Black Grouse, Imperial Eagle, Bearded, Black and Egyptian Vulture, Pygmy Cormorant, White-headed Duck, White-Tailed Lapwing, Terek Sandpiper, Roller, Blue-cheeked Bee-eater, Bimaculated Lark, Western and Eastern Rock Nuthatch, Wallcreeper, Rosecoloured Starling, Güldenstadt’s Redstart, Rufous-tailed Bush-Robin, White-breasted Robin, Blue and Redtailed Rock Thrush, Raddes’ Accentor, Semi-Collared Flycatcher, Red-breasted Flycatcher, Ménétries’ Warbler, Upcher’s Warbler, Paddyfield Warbler, Red-fronted Serin, Great Rosefinch, Rock Sparrow, Pale Rock Sparrow, Trumpeter Finch, White-winged Snowfinch, Black-headed Bunting, Grey-necked Bunting. Out of those target species, we didn’t see Terek Sandpiper, Western Rock Nuthatch and Pale Rock Sparrow.
  • 2022 [09 September] - Batumi Raptors Special & Svaneti Extension

    PDF Report
    ...The bushes are full mainly of young Redbacked Shrikes, both Lesser and Common Whitethroats and other common passerines, and in the reeds there are several Great Reed Warblers as usual. Gulls are everywhere - mostly Yellow-legged and Caspian. We're walking deeper. On a small pond, at first glance, there are only a few Common Moorhens, a Little Grebe and a well-showing Water Rail perched on the reeds, but then Guy spots a Grey-headed Swamphen, selectively eating fresh cane stalks. Even later, we flush a Little Bittern, but quickly lose track of it among the dense reedbeds. And then one young and curious Ortolan Bunting brazenly lands next to us. This is the case when a macro lens is more appropriate. It's already pretty hot and quiet, so it's time for us to go to the hotel...
  • 2023 [03 March] - Birding Ecotours

    PDF Report
    Our 11-day tour of Georgia began on the 31st of March 2023, in the glamourous city of Batumi, and concluded on the 10th of April 2023 in Tbilisi. Our trip around this beautiful country gave us many exciting species, including Caucasian Snowcock, Caucasian Grouse, Güldenstädt’s Redstart, Red-fronted Serin, Great Rosefinch, Citrine Wagtail, Common Crane (Archibaldii subspecies), Bearded Vulture, Alpine Chough, Turkestan Short-toed Lark, Mountain Chiffchaff, Krüper’s Nuthatch, Western Rock Nuthatch, Blue Rock Thrush, Siberian Stonechat, Isabelline Wheatear, and White-throated Dipper. A total of 136 bird species were recorded during the tour (three of these were “heard only”), with complete species lists at the end of this report
  • 2023 [04 April] - Richard Bashford

    PDF Report
    At the scenic breakfast table overlooking the old city, we saw many hundreds of Common Swifts and a couple of Night Herons along the river. Our final two members had arrived earlier and were welcomed by the rest of the group – a round of singing Happy Birthday to Leo was suitably embarrassing…
  • 2023 [05 May] - Bram Vogels

    PDF Report
    ...We had water pipit, Northern wheatear, Ring ouzel, White wagtail, Twite, Red-billed chough and our first Caucasian grouse...
  • 2023 [08 August] - Alexander Rukhaia

    PDF Report
    On the first morning, after hard work, we managed to find only three Caucasian Grouse, but it was unrealistically high and distant, and there was not even the slightest vocal sign from Caucasian Snowcocks. We came to the conclusion that they were not where we were looking for. During these days and hours, we have stumbled upon same flocks of East Caucasian Turs probably already hundreds of times, but Golden Eagle on the contrary was seen only once from afar, while Bearded Vulture has not been seen at all these days. Maybe they are in the neighboring region, to the south of here, where tens of thousands of sheep graze on summer mountain pastures.
  • 2023 [09 September] - Alexander Rukhaia

    PDF Report
    ...This is the day when we were lucky enough to see a couple of Crested Honey Buzzards. We picked one of them first, without assistance, among a group of ordinary Honey Buzzards flying at a fairly high distance, and the other flew almost parallel to the viewpoint from the sea a little earlier. I remember the one who spotted it first shouted - ‘Short-toed Eagle is coming close’. As it turned out, it was an adult male Crested Honey Buzzard...
  • 2024 [03 Marcg] - Alexander Rukhaia

    PDF Report
    ...We drove back down to town and had a wonderful lunch at Hotel Stancia, where the restaurant afforded wonderful views of the River Terek and Mount Kazbergi. We had traditional beans and pickles, plus other things, followed by “Strong Coffee” to power the next round of birding, an afternoon along the Terek River Valley beyond the dam. There was a White-throated Dipper by the dam and plenty of Güldenstädt’s Redstart in the bushes below together with a few Great Rosefinch, Ring Ouzel and other small birds providing good scope views but too distant for decent photos...

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