Senegal, officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. Senegal is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Mauritania to the north, Mali to the east, and Guinea and Guinea-Bissau to the south. Its size is almost 197,000 km² with an estimated population of nearly 11,700,000. The Gambia lies almost entirely within Senegal, surrounded by it on the north, east and south; from its western coast, Gambia's territory follows the Gambia River more than 300 kilometres (186 miles) inland. Dakar is the capital city of Senegal, located on the Cape Verde Peninsula on the country's Atlantic coast.
Senegal is located on the west of the African continent. The Senegalese landscape consists mainly of the rolling sandy plains of the western Sahel which rise to foothills in the southeast. Here is also found Senegal's highest point, an otherwise unnamed feature near Nepen Diakha at 584 m (1926 ft). The northern border is formed by the Senegal River, other rivers include the Gambia and Casamance Rivers. The capital Dakar lies on the Cap-Vert peninsula, the westernmost point of continental Africa.
The local climate is tropical with well-defined dry and humid seasons that result from northeast winter winds and southwest summer winds. Dakar's annual rainfall of about 600 mm (24 in) occurs between June and October when maximum temperatures average 27 °C (81 °F); December to February minimum temperatures are about 17 °C (63°F). Interior temperatures can be substantially higher than along the coast, and rainfall increases substantially farther south, exceeding 1.5 m (59.1 in) annually in some areas. The far interior of the country, in the region of Tambacounda, particularly on the border or Mali, temperatures can reach as high as 54 °C (130 °F).
The Cape Verde islands lie some 560 kilometers (348 mi) off the Senegalese coast, but Cap Vert ("Cape Green") is a maritime placemark, set at the foot of "Les Mammelles" , a 105-metre (344 ft) cliff resting at one end of the Cap Vert peninsula onto which is settled Senegal's capital Dakar, and 1 kilometre (1,100 yd) south of the "Pointe des Almadies", the western-most point in Africa.
Senegal's capital of Dakar is by far the largest city in Senegal, with over two million residents. The second most populous city is Touba, a de jure communaute rurale (rural community), with half a million
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Number of Species
Number of bird species: 663
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Birds of Senegal and The Gambia
Ron Demey & Nik Borrow (Illustrator) | Christopher Helm | 2012 | Paperback | 352 pages, 143 plates with colour illustrations; colour distribution maps, colour maps
ISBN: 9781408134696Buy this book from NHBS.com
Birds of Western Africa: An Identification Guide
Nik Borrow and Ron Demey Series: CHRISTOPHER HELM IDENTIFICATION GUIDE SERIES 832 pages, 147 col plates, 1100 dist maps. Christopher Helm
ISBN: 0713639598Buy this book from NHBS.com
Field Guide to the Birds of Western Africa
Nik Borrow and Ron Demey Series: HELM FIELD GUIDES 496 pages, 150 col plates, 1300 maps. Christopher Helm See Fatbirder Review
ISBN: 0713666927Buy this book from NHBS.com
Guides & Tour Operators
Local birders willing to show visiting birders around their area…
Senegal is one of West Africa’s most stable countries with a heavy French influence dating back to colonial days. The coastline has two important wetlands of international importance which are protected in the form of national parks…
Tours in East Senegal…
The Senegal Experience
Birdwatching - thanks to the diversity and fecundity of the natural environment in Senegal it attracts a whole host of interesting marine and birdlife and there are abundant opportunities to experience it close at hand…
Run an annual combination trip (i.e. to Gambia too)
CloudBirders was created by a group of Belgian world birding enthusiasts and went live on 21st of March 2013. They provide a large and growing database of birding trip reports, complemented with extensive search, voting and statistical features.
2006 [01 January] - Nik Borrow
We returned to The Gambia and Senegal this year under the guise of ‘Easybird’ in what was virtually a blaze of glory! An impressive, record-breaking total of 363 species were recorded…
2007 [02 February] - Bill & Heather Quinn
…There were a number of artificial freshwater ponds in the area used for cultivation. In addition to the more common birds we saw Painted Snipe, Common Snipe, Moorhen, Pearl Spotted Owlet, Wood Sandpiper, Purple Heron, Zitting Cisticola, Green-headed Sunbird, Bar-breasted Firefinch. Afterwards we went into the Abuko Nature Reserve where, in addition to the always-present pair of Giant Kingfishers, we had splendid views of a Red-billed Paradise Flycatcher, a Black Crake, a Little Greenbul and a Collared Sunbird. On 12th February as darkness was falling Modou showed us a Barn Owl in a tree in the grounds of the Senegambia Hotel. It was a very good ending to two excellent weeks birding in the Gambia…
2010 [01 January] - Mark Finn
…Highlights were many including several sought after species notably African Swallow-tailed Kite, Arabian and Savile’s Bustards, Bronze-winged Courser, Four-banded Sandgrouse, Little Grey Woodpecker, African Scrub Robin, Yellow-bellied Eremomela, Chestnut-bellied Starling, Sudan Golden Sparrows, Black-faced Quail-finch and Blackcap Babblers…
2012 [02 February] - Mark Finn
…The group met up at 0700 hours for a pre-breakfast walk around the grounds. The acacia trees surrounding the horse paddocks were productive for Red-billed Hornbill, Western Olivaceous Warbler, Common Chiffchaff and dozens of wintering Subalpine Warblers. By the new accommodation block a small pool attracted African Jacana and African Black Crakes. The fields leading to the riverside restaurant produced Double-spurred Francolin, Western Yellow Wagtail (three races), White Wagtail, Sudan Golden Sparrows, Vitteline Masked Weavers and Red-billed Firefinches. The shallow waters and reed fringed edges of the lagoon were a magnet for birds including Little and Cattle Egrets, Squacco and Grey Herons, Black-winged Stilt, Wood and Common Sandpipers, Gull-billed and Caspian Terns…
2013 [12 December] - Chris Kehoe - Gambia & Senegal
Our 2013 Birdquest tour to Gambia and Senegal served up a splendid selection of regional specialities plus a wealth of more widespread Afrotropical species and Palearctic winter visitors. Particular highlights amongst the more localised or tricky species included delightful Cricket Warblers, exquisite Scissor-tailed Kites, showy Quail-plovers, Arabian and Saville's Bustards, localised River Prinias, confiding Ahanta Francolins, Western Bluebills, Grey-headed Bristlebill…
2013 [12 December] - Mark Finn
…The first stop along the road provided us with Abyssinian and Rufous-crowned Rollers, Long-tailed and Chestnut-bellied Starlings, Northern Wheatear, Woodchat Shrike, Bush Petronia and a single Eurasian Kestrel. Further north we located circling vultures which included; White-backed and Ruppell’s and the declining Hooded. On reaching St Louis the mudflats and rubbish areas attracted Grey-hooded Gulls, Cattle and Little Egrets, waders, Eurasian Spoonbill and Spur-winged Lapwings. Reached the ranch for a late lunch where the gardens held Northern Crombec, Common Gonolek, Western Yellow and White Wagtails, Tree Pipit and our first African Fish Eagles…
2014 [01 January] - Christoph Moning & Gerlinde Taurer
This year we decided to escape the drab European winter by exploring the region of Senegambia. We took this as an introduction to the West-African avifauna, while enjoying the huge diversity and quantity of European migrants.
2014 [12 December] - Christopher Hall
After a good night’s sleep, our local guide Abdou, aka Carlos, joins us for breakfast, along with Common Bulbuls, and then we head north for Saint Louis and the Djoudj National Park, near the border with Mauritania. Just ten minutes into the journey, we make an emergency stop for a handsome Red-necked Falcon perched in a roadside tree, along with a Red-billed Hornbill, quickly followed by a couple of Western Grey Plaintain Eaters, which look as exotic as they sound. After an hour on the road, a stroll through some non-descript looking scrub produces a series of good birds in the top of the same bush; Black Scrub Robin, Yellow-crowned Gonolek, and Sahel Paradise Whydah, with an unfeasibly long flowing tail; All these on top of Grey Kestrel, Mottled Spinetail, Abyssinian Roller, Tawny-flanked Prinia, Grey-backed Camaroptera and Cut-throat Finch. A little further up the road, we find a bush with Rufous-crowned Roller, Northern Grey-headed Sparrow and Laughing Doves, and further on, Northern Anteater Chat and Chestnut-bellied Starling, but best stop of all is for a melee of about twenty Vultures feasting on a goat...
2015 [11 November] - Jan Sjostedt & Ingvar Jansson - Gambia & Senegal
2016 [02 February] - Henk Hendriks - Northern Senegal
Every morning I walked from 08.00 to 10.30 out of my hotel and birded the surrounding scrub, gardens and the bay area. The area was surprisingly birdy and at the end of this report you can find the species list in which I stated the species seen during these morning walks.
African Bird Club
With good travel connections, a tourist infrastructure and a list of over 600 bird species, one might expect that more birders would visit Senegal. There have been fairly thorough surveys of most of the coastal areas, the Niokolo-Koba National Park and the large Ferlo reserves. However, some other parts of the country remain relatively unknown in ornithological terms, and there are good opportunities for the independently minded birder to explore this interesting country…
West African Ornithological Society
The West African Ornithological Society grew out of the Nigerian Ornithologists’ Society, which was founded in February 1964. Its object is to promote scientific interest in the birds of West Africa and to further the region’s ornithology, mainly by means of its journal Malimbus (formerly the Bulletin of the Nigerian Ornithologists’ Society). This journal is biannual and bilingual, a unique feature in Africa.The West African Ornithological Society grew out of the Nigerian Ornithologists’ Society, which was founded in February 1964. Its object is to promote scientific interest in the birds of West Africa and to further the region’s ornithology, mainly by means of its journal Malimbus (formerly the Bulletin of the Nigerian Ornithologists’ Society). This journal is biannual and bilingual, a unique feature in Africa.
Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary
In the Senegal River delta, the Djoudj Sanctuary is a wetland of 16,000 hectares, comprised of a large lake surrounded by streams, ponds and backwaters, which form a living but fragile sanctuary for one and a half million birds, such as the white pelican, the purple heron, the African spoonbill, the great egret and the cormorant.
There are no endemic species in Senegal and no primary Endemic Bird Area, although species representative of Sahel, Sudan-Guinea Savanna and Guinea-Congo Forests biomes occur in the country. There is one EBA secondary area for Mali Firefinch, Lagonosticta virata in the Upper Niger Valley and contiguous with that in Mali. Of particular note are the huge concentrations of migrant and resident waterbirds for which the wetlands in the floodplain of the Senegal river are of vital importance. It is estimated that 3 million migrant birds pass through the protected areas in the Senegal river each year. The importance of the coastline for resident and passage seabirds has become apparent in recent years with observations of tens of thousands of migrant terns, gulls and shearwaters moving along the coast…
Niokolo-Koba National Park
Birds include Denham's Bustard Neotis cafra denhami, Ground Hornbill Bucorvus abyssinicus, Violet Turaco Musophaga violacea, Spur-winged Goose Plectropterus gambensis, White-faced Tree Duck Dendrocygna viduata, Martial Eagle Polemaetus bellicosus and Bateleur Terathopius ecaudatus.
Réserve de Faune du Ferlo Nord
The Ferlo Nord Wildlife Reserve (Réserve de Faune du Ferlo-Nord), established in 1971, is a 6,000 square kilometres (2,300 sq mi) IUCN habitat and species protected nature reserve. It is bordered by the Ferlo Sud Wildlife Reserve to the south.
e.g. Parc National du Djoudj - Riverine habitat on the Senegal River. Access by road from St Louis. Open all year round. Reasonable accommodation or camping available. Viewing by foot, vehicle or pirogue (canoe). Important resting place for migratory birds, over 300 species recorded.
Les oiseaux à Saint-Louis et au nord du Sénégal - About birds and others in the Senegal delta and the sahelian area in north Senegal…
Wildlife BLOG from Bram Piot, Paul Robinson & Simon Cavaillès with entries in English or French. This blog and associated web pages soon to be launched grew out of a desire to exchange information on sightings of birds and occasionally other fauna in Senegal and interesting places to see birds, fulfilling a gap for resident and visiting birders.
Birds of The Gambia and Senegal
…this photo group started with the intent of promoting responsible birding in The Gambia and Senegal, and sharing information for birders visiting The Gambia, Senegal, or West Africa. Of the 660+ species listed (Clements) for Senegambia, we have pictures of over 495 now: 73%. Also, discussion of trip reports, subspecies, and more. Non-profit, volunteer - with contributors from all over the world…
Les Oiseaux du Senegal
Les oiseaux que l`on peut rencontrer au Sénégal représentent environ 630 espèces dont un peu moins du tiers sont des oiseaux migrateurs européens…
Seabirds off Senegal
Despite its location on the extreme western coast of Africa, Senegal has attracted attention from only a few intrepid seabird observers. This is surprising given the unique location of the capital, Dakar, on a low-lying peninsula, the tip of which projects 50 km out to sea from the main north-south line of the coast, offering exceptional opportunities for observations, especially in autumn. The results of our seawatching efforts, presented here, are relatively modest, yet significant.
The Cape Verde Peninsula, in the West African nation of Senegal, juts out into the Atlantic Ocean. The seawatching potential of this locality has only just been realized and initial results are very exciting (see Baillon and Dubois, 1992; Marr and Porter, 1992). From early September to mid-October, Bailon and Dubois observed an extensive passage on jaegers/skuas totalling nearly 1000 in 40 hours of counting, while Marr and Porter reported spectacular northward passage in April including hundreds of Wilson`s Storm-petrel, European Storm-petrel, Pomarine Jaegers, Sabine`s Gulls, and 1,000s of terns including over 10,000 Black Tern. In addition, numbers of South Polar Skua and Cape Verde Shearwaters occur offshore in the fall (Porter et al., 1997; Newell et al., 1997). A detailed on-line account of spring and fall observations prepared by Tony Marr, Dick Newell and Richard Porter (based on an article in the Mar 1998 Bulletin of the African Bird Club, vol. 5) can be found on the African Bird Club site…