Cameroon remains little known ornithologically, despite being the richest country in West Africa for birds. It is probably the most accessible country in West-Central Africa with many exceptionally exciting birds. Lying at the junction between West and Central Africa, Cameroon supports 968 bird species if we include the Golden Nightjar discovered recently by Ian Sinclair et al. (2016). Of these, 704 are resident, 218 are seasonal migrants (145 from the Palaearctic and 73 intra-African). Seven species are endemic to geographical Cameroon. However, two vital Endemic Bird Areas form a major part of Cameroon, Cameroon and Gabon lowlands (EBA 085); which has six species found nowhere else in the world, all of these occur in Cameroon including the mythical Grey-necked Rockfowl. The other EBA, the Cameroon Mountains (EBA 086); holds some 29 restricted range endemics that are confined to Cameroon, and a small portion of Nigeria.
Access - Although occasionally frustrating, Cameroon is a well-connected country with a road an air network that can (and usually does) get one from A to B very effectively. Regular flights connect the two main birding zones in the north and south of the country and the roads in the north are good year-round. In the south, it is best to avoid the rainy season between May and August when the roads become muddy paths and places such as Korup are virtually inaccessible. For most of the year however, although the roads are poor, most sites can be visited.
Timing - March and early April are the optimal times to visit Cameroon. This is before the heavy rains come, but many birds in the south are actively setting up territories and many of the seasonal migrants are still present in the far north. Avoid going to the south in May to August when rain can severely impact your chances of making it to your preferred destinations, and even if you get there you may till be rained out.
Topography - Mount Cameroon, just to the southwest of Douala, is the tallest peak in West Africa at 4,095m. It dominates the southwestern portion of the country. It is connected to the Cameroon Highlands, which comprise the Rumpi Hills, Mt Kupé, & Bamenda Highlands, which penetrate into Nigeria (the Obodu Plateau). Geographically, these highlands are connected to offshore Bioko and are part of a continuous volcanic intrusion that extends inland as far as the Adamawa plateau and the Mandara Mountains in the northwest at 11°N. The remainder of the country comprises mostly flat lowlands undulating between 800m and sea-level.
Birding Habitats - The diversity of habitats is staggering and is replicated no-where else in West Africa. Far north Cameroon comprises the low sparse thorn-dominated woodlands and grasslands of the Sahel biome. This extends from just north of Benoue. There are many characteristic species of this dry woodland-grassland mosaic, although they are shared with many other West African nations. To the south, Cameroon is covered by Guinea savannah, which is a broad-leaved woodland. The third major habitat is Afro-montane Forest. Within Cameroon, this habitat is found on Mt Cameroon, Mt Kupé, the Bamenda-Banso highlands and supports 29 restricted range species in the Cameroon Mountains (EBA 086); which are confined to Cameroon, and a small portion of Nigeria.
They include: Mount Cameroon Francolin, Cameroon Olive Pigeon, Bannerman's Turaco, Mountain Saw-wing, Cameroon Greenbul, Grey-throated Greenbul, Cameroon Olive Greenbul, Grey-headed Greenbul, Yellow-breasted Boubou, Mount Kupé Bush Shrike, Green-breasted Bush Shrike, Monteiro's Bush Shrike, Mountain Robin Chat, White-throated Mountain Babbler, Brown-backed Cisticola, Green Longtail, Bamenda Apalis, Bangwa Forest Warbler, White-tailed Warbler, Black-capped Woodland Warbler, Fernando Po Batis, Banded Wattle-eye, Cameroon Sunbird, Ursula's Sunbird, Mount Cameroon Speriops, Fernando Po Speriops, Fernando Po Oliveback and Bannerman's Weaver. Although only seven of these species are geographically endemic to Cameroon, all of them are most easily seen here.
The remainder of the country, particularly in the far south and west comprises lowland Guinea-Congo Forests. Another vital Endemic Bird Areas forms this part of Cameroon, Cameroon and Gabon lowlands (EBA 085); which has six species found nowhere else in the world, all of these occur in Cameroon, Forest Swallow, Grey-necked Rockfowl, Dja River Warbler, Gabon Batis, Bates's Weaver and Rachel's Malimbe. Added to the plethora of endemics many non-endemic specials are found in Cameroon, not least of which are Egyptian Plover, Arabian Bustard, Quail Plover, Stone Partridge, Violet Turaco, Sudan Golden Sparrow and Scissor-tailed Kite in the northern savannas and Grey Pratincole, Bare-cheeked Trogon, Grey-sided and Red-sided Broadbills in the forested southwest.
Bakossi National Park
The Bakossi National Park (BNP) is a protected area within the Bakossi Forest Reserve, created by a decree in early 2008. The park covers 29,320 hectares (72,500 acres), and was justified on the basis of preserving plant diversification.
Bamenda Highlands: Bafut-Nguemba Forest Reserve
This area comprises remnant montane and riverine forest within the Cameroon Mountains EBA. Leaving Bamenda, it is worthwhile checking the grounds of the Bali Safari Lodge, where Bamenda Apalis has been recorded, particularly on the stretch of road towards Bamenda, check the first 500 m. To get to Bafut-Nguemba, turn east off the N6 18 km south of Bamenda, or 33 km north of Mbouda, drive a further three kilometres before reaching forested gullies amongst Eucalyptus plantation. Although all the specials have been seen here, if you can head straight up to Lake Awing, where most of the target birds are easy. Bannerman's Turaco, Banded Wattle-eye and Bannerman's Weaver are all seen here with relative ease. It is undoubtedly the best site to see two highly localised endemics: Bannerman's Turaco and Banded Wattle-eye and the near-endemic Bannerman's Weaver. The best area for these birds is right next to Lake Awing. Other specials that can be seen here include Yellow-breasted and Mountain Boubou Shrike, Brown-backed Cisticola, Bangwa Scrub Warbler, Mountain Robin Chat, Forest Swallow, Cameroon Mountain Greenbul, Green Longtail and Cameroon Sunbird. Little Grey Flycatcher, Grey-chested Illadopsis, Black-collared Apalis, Congo Serpent Eagle and a mystery nightjar were seen here in 2003.
It is best to spend a night in Bamenda at the Skyline Hotel where both White-crowned Cliff Chat and Neumann's Starling can be seen in the garden! Leaving Bamenda, it is worthwhile checking the grounds of the Bali Safari Lodge, where Bamenda Apalis has been recorded, particularly on the stretch of road towards Bamenda, check the first 500 m. To get to Bafut-Nguemba, turn east off the N6 18 km south of Bamenda, or 33 km north of Mbouda, drive a further three kilometres before reaching forested gullies amongst Eucalyptus plantation. Although all the specials have been seen here, if you can head straight up to Lake Awing, where most of the target birds are easy. Bannerman's Turaco, Banded Wattle-eye and Bannerman's Weaver are all seen here with relative ease. Other excellent specials one might notch up in this seemingly unimpressive forest patch include Cassin's Hawk-Eagle, Yellow-breasted Boubou, Mountain Boubou, Mountain Robin-Chat, Forest Swallow, Petit's Sawwing, Cameroon Mountain Greenbul, Cameroon Olive-Greenbul, Cameroon Sunbird, Oriole Finch, Purple-throated Cuckoo-Shrike, Ruwenzori Hill-Babbler, Elliot's Woodpecker, Brown-capped Weaver and Johanna's Sunbird. The best areas also include Mt Oku.
Benoue National Park
Benoue National Park is situated roughly halfway between Garoua and Ngaoundéré in the northern Guinea savannah belt in north Cameroon and the two national park entrances are at the small towns of Mayo Alim and Banda. Accommodation is available at Campement du Bufflé Noir which have chalets with private facilities. It is only possible to visit this reserve with a vehicle. It is possible with a saloon car, but one is restricted to driving on the main roads in the park, the other roads are too bad, especially at the small watercourses. The low rocky hills covered with orchard-like open forest support specials of this zone including Adamawa Turtle-Dove, White-throated Francolin, Emin's Shrike and Rufous-rumped Lark. Some of the best birding is in the Campement du Bufflé Noir's garden along the Benoue River.
Prime specialities on the river are Egyptian Plover as well as Three-banded and White-headed Plover. At dusk check the terrace along the Benoue River for Bat Hawk and Standard-winged Nightjar. A walk along the river with a gard may be arranged in the morning, providing opportunities to see Grey Kestrel, White-crested and Violet Turaco, Giant Kingfisher, Bearded Barbet, Pearl-spotted Owlet, White-breasted Cuckoo-Shrike, Sulphur-breasted Bushshrike, Spotted Creeper, Yellow Penduline Tit, Swallow-tailed Bee-eater, Little and Black-headed Weaver and Cinnamon-breasted Bunting. Other Guinea savanna specials include Blue-bellied Roller, Grasshopper Buzzard, Stone Partridge, Four-banded Sandgrouse, Bruce's Green Pigeon, Senegal Parrot, White-crested and Violet Turaco, Abyssinian Roller, Abyssinian Ground-Hornbill, Heuglin's Wheatear, Yellow-billed Shrike, Senegal Batis, White-fronted Black-Chat, Senegal Eremomela, Bush Petronia, Black-faced and Black-bellied Firefinch, Red-winged Pytilia and Pygmy Sunbird.
Dang lake is a large shallow lake, just north of Ngaoundéré near the university alongside the road north to Garoua and is visible from the main road. Usually visited from Ngaoundaba Ranch. It is best to visit this lake in the early morning, so that the heat haze is greatly reduced. We explored the lake from three different places: from the road to Garoua and from two different places at the university. However it was impossible for us to identify the birds on the middle of the lake. Birds include Little Grebe, Long-tailed Cormorant, White-faced Whistling-Duck, African Pygmy-Goose, Yellow-billed Duck, Little Egret, Grey Heron, Great Egret, Squacco Heron, Black Kite, Hooded Vulture, Western Marsh-Harrier, Lesser Moorhen, African Jacana, Lesser Jacana, Wood and Common Sandpiper, Spur-winged Plover, Pied Kingfisher, Woodchat Shrike, Sedge Warbler, Crested Lark.
Korup National Park
Korup National Park was proclaimed in 1986, covering 1259 km2 of unique lowland rainforest in southwest Cameroon and is situated on the Cameroon/Nigeria border in southwest Cameroon. There are two HQs for Korup, at most popular one is at Mundemba in the south, where one can stay at the Hotel Iyaz, and at Nguti in the north. Mundemba is six hours by rough road from Kumba. Potential visitors to the southern part of Korup during the heavy rains (late July-September) should bear in mind that, even with four-wheel drive vehicles reaching Mundemba can be extremely time-consuming. A forest refugium that survived more than 60 million years, this isolate of lower guinea rainforest supports a greater diversity of plant and animal species than comparable forests elsewhere in Africa. It supports more than 425 species of birds; there are also 174 species of reptiles and amphibians as well as 140 species of fish from the Korup area. Many, many lowland forest birds are found at Korup, but perhaps the greatest prize is the Grey-headed Rockfowl. Other delights include Black Guineafowl and Black-eared Ground-Thrush. The best areas include: Mundemba, Picathartes Knoll, the trails to and from Rengo Camp, & Nguti.
An active volcano, the isolated Mount Cameroon is a huge mountain that rises from the ocean and is West Africa's largest free-standing mountain rising to over 4000 m a.s.l. Although a great deal of the mountain has been deforested, the remaining natural vegetation supports the Mount Cameroon Francolin and Cameroon Speriops, which are found no-where else in the world as well as Brown-backed Cisticola, Cameroon Pipit and Bates' Weaver which are Cameroon endemics. Other specials the mountain hosts are Cameroon Olive Pigeon, Western Green Tinkerbird, Yellow-breasted Boubou, Green-breasted Bush Shrike, Mountain Robin-Chat, Mountain Saw-wing, Cameroon Mountain and Grey-headed Greenbuls, Green Longtail, Cameroon Scrub Warbler, White-tailed Warbler, Yellow Longbill, Black-capped Woodland Warbler, Fernando Po Oliveback, Cameroon and Ursula's Sunbirds. It is possible to stay in the Miramar Beach Hotel in the Limbe Botanical Gardens on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean gardens or a hotel in Douala. The best areas include Buea [Approximately 70km west of Douala, the Mountain is accessible from the town of Buea. It is possible to walk up to 2000 m a.s.l., where one can search for Cameroon Pipit and the Cameroon Speriops. Visitors need a permit from the Tourism Office in Buea] and Limbe [The Botanical Gardens at Limbe can be very rewarding and interesting species to be seen here include Blue-headed Wood-Dove, African Blue-Flycatcher, Rufous-vented Paradise-Flycatcher, MacKinnon's Shrike, Brown-throated Wattle-eye, Cassin's Flycatcher, Grey-headed Negrofinch, Slender-billed Weaver, Vieillot's Black Weaver, Western Bluebill, Reichenbach's Sunbird, Green-headed Sunbird and Carmelite Sunbird. Tracks up the mountain can be reached from Mapanja, a villiage just above Limbe].
Ranch de Ngaoundaba
Ranch de Ngaoundaba is situated 40km south-east of Ngaoundéré. The ranch is a former hunting lodge situated in a superb setting alongside an ancient crater lake. The only place to stay is the Ngaoundaba Ranch, with chalets and private facilities. Surrounded by forest savannah mosaic, the lake and the remnant patches of gallery forest provide a perfect introduction to the birds of the Adamawa Plateau. Over 200 birds have been recorded at this ranch, amongst them a number of species difficult to see anywhere in Africa including Schlegel`s Francolin, Brown-chested Lapwing, Puvel`s Illadopsis, Thrush Babbler, White-collared Starling, Bamenda Apalis and Dybowski`s Twinspot. Some of the best birding is around the ranch buildings. The open woodland adjacent to the ranch supports White-collared Starling, Emin`s Shrike (occasionally); White-breasted Cuckoo-Shrike, Blue-bellied Roller, Brown Twinspot, Bamenda Apalis, Willcox`s Honeyguide, Marsh Tchagra, Gambaga Flycatcher, White-shouldered Black-Tit, Yellow Penduline-Tit, Sun Lark, Bar-breasted Firefinch. The gallery forest near the ranch entrance is home to Black-headed Batis, Leaf-love, Grey-winged Robin-Chat, Grey-headed Oliveback, Red-faced Pytinia, Thrush Babbler as well as two of Africa`s star turacos White-crested and Lady Ross`. Night drives offer chances of Plain, Black-shouldered, Pennant-winged, Standard-winged and Long-tailed Nightjars. The mammals are no less spectacular with Serval, Civet and many others.
This spot is near to the villiage of Edea and is an excellent place to see Grey Pratincole. It is possible to reach this site by either staying in Douala or at Edea. The forest about 50 km south of Douala is excellent and warrants a search. Driving in the direction of Yaouande from Douala, one finds excellent forest after about 50 km. Here Pied, Piping, White-thighed and Black-casqued Wattled Hornbills can be seen. Red-vented and Blue-billed Malimbe, Splendid Glossy Starling, Bristle-nosed and Yellow-spotted Barbets and Speckled Tinkerbird may also be found. Sabine's Spinetail and Bates' Swift can be seen overhead. The Sanaga River lies c. 60km east of Douala en route to Yaoundé (N3) near the city of Edea. Just before crossing the Sanaga River turn right on the dirt road to Dizangua for c. 10km until the road runs alongside the Sanaga River. From here follow the river and check the sandbanks in the river for Grey Pratincole and African Skimmer. The magical White-throated Blue Swallow can also occasionally be seen hawking up and down the river, check exposed rocks on the river as they sometimes perch on these. The sandbanks run for 5-6km depending on the water levels. It is possible to get fishermen to take you out onto the river, so that you can walk on the sandbanks. These also hold Senegal Thick-knee and White-crowned Lapwing. It is worthwhile checking the bridge across the Sanaga River on the N3 near Edea; check the telephone wires for Preuss' Swallows and the reeds along the river for Orange Weaver.
Waza National Park
This national park, some 1 700 km2 in extent, in far north Cameroon is situated on the edge of the Sahel, just south of Lake Chad. The reserve supports acacia savannah, vast areas of seasonal marshes and grassland. The landscape is mostly flat although around Waza itself some impressive hills dominate the countryside for kilometres. The main camp at Campement de Waza, comprises air-conditioned chalets with private facilities. The area holds the richest birdlife in the entire Sahelian band, where the recorded list seems endless. The many small waterholes teem with waterbirds and also attract many dry-country species desperate for water in this harsh environment. The best birds at Waza include the highly sought-after Arabian Bustard. Waterholes about 8-10 km south of the park entrance on the road to Mora support River Prinia and Sennar Penduline-Tit. About 30 km north of Mora there are flocks of Sudan Golden-Sparrow and anywhere where the feathery golden grass can be found is good for Quail Plover and is excellent habitat for the recently discovered Golden Nightjar. The entire district could yield Scissor-tailed Kite. Other range-restricted birds that are best looked for in the Waza-Mora area include Clapperton's Francolin, Black Crowned-Crane, Black Scimitar-Bill, Chestnut-bellied Starling and Black Scrub-Robin. The park is open from mid November to mid June only and it is only possible to enter with a vehicle and the company of a guide. In the dry season nearly all the roads are navigable in a 2WD, although birding by 4WD is much easier. There are three main areas to bird around Waza: Waza National Park, the pools along the main road south of Waza and the area around Waza village. Waza NP doubles as one of the best parks in West Africa for observing mammals.
Number of Species
Number of bird species: 910
Number of endemics: 7
Cameroon Francolin Pternistis camerunensis Bannerman's Turaco Tauraco bannermani Serle's Bushshrike Telophorus kupeensis Banded Wattle-eye Platysteira laticincta Bamenda Apalis Apalis bamendae Cameroon Speirops Speirops melanocephalus Bates's Weaver Ploceus batesi
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Birds of Western Africa: An Identification Guide
Nik Borrow and Ron Demey Series: CHRISTOPHER HELM IDENTIFICATION GUIDE SERIES 832 pages, 147 col plates, 1100 dist maps. Christopher Helm
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Field Guide to the Birds of Western Africa
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Guides & Tour Operators
Please contact us for for info on Cameroon tours. Birding Ecotours aims to provide world-wide birding experiences of superb quality, while contributing to environmental conservation and disadvantaged communities. Please contact us for detailed information, queries and quotations as we are happy to help you in every aspect of planning your birding holiday.
Local birders willing to show visiting birders around their area…
Cameroon, lying a little north of the Equator, straddles the geographical dividing line between West and Central Africa. This marvellous country undoubtedly offers the most exciting birding in West Africa. Nearly 900 species have been recorded from the country, far more than from any other comparable area in West Africa, and at least 25 endemic or near-endemic species (depending on the vagaries of modern taxonomy) grace this impressive total…
Rockjumper Birding Tours
Cameroon in Central Africa harbors a whole host of rare and highly sought-after species, including the fabulous Grey-necked Rockfowl, and we at Rockjumper pride ourselves in having operated numerous successful tours to this fantastic birding region.
Cameroon is the richest birding country in West Africa, supporting over 900 species. It is highly diverse with typical lowland and montane tropical rainforests and Pro-Sahelian savannas. Two vital Endemic Bird Areas are found in Cameroon and Nigeria, the Cameroon and Gabon lowlands EBA and the Cameroon Mountains EBA, which together hold 33 restricted range species…
CloudBirders was created by a group of Belgian world birding enthusiasts and went live on 21st of March 2013. They provide a large and growing database of birding trip reports, complemented with extensive search, voting and statistical features.
2007 [04 April] - Michael Mills
This comprehensive Cameroon tour is conveniently spliced into three segments, allowing those with time on their hands to visit all essential sites in this bird-rich country, while at the same time catering for those that can only afford 1-2 weeks away…
2008 [03 March] - Martin Wootton
Cameroon is one of the primary birding destinations in West Africa with a wide variety of endemics, regional specialities and pan-African species and it remains a major destination for all serious West African birders…
2009 [03 March] - Michael Mills
This year’s Cameroon tour was notable for terrific spotting by the tour participants, making my job far easier than I am accustomed to. This gave us extra time to enjoy superb sightings of birds and it enabled us to record a very impressive 590 bird species in only 21 days, without visiting Korup National Park…
2010 [09 September] - Sjef Öllers - Cameroon, Congo and Central African Republic
…I more or less accidentally found a tour to Congo and Central African Republic offered by Steppes Travel. The tour schedule looked excellent with almost two weeks spent in the Dzanga-Sangha area and the adjoining Nouabalé-Ndoki national park. Although normally we don’t like joining group tours, the interesting tour schedule convinced us to give it a try….
2011 [04 April] - Markus Lilje - Cameroon II
Douala was the starting point for our Cameroon adventure, with a morning visit to La Digue yielding a few good sunbirds, including Carmelite and Reichenbach’s among the very common Olive-bellied. Other birds here were Black-headed Waxbill, our first White-chinned Prinia and many Brown-throated Wattle-eyes.
2012 [04 April] - Mike Nelson
…I’d been looking at Cameroon for some time with its abundance of endemics and the chance at Red-headed Picathartes so got in contact with a guide and we came up with an itinerary that would give us the chance for most of what I was looking for…
2013 [04 April] - David Hoddinott & Glen Valentine
With its wealth of endemics, diverse habitats that includes vast tracts of pristine lowland and montane rainforest, semi desert and guinea savanna, combined with having a bird list of over 900 species...
2014 [03 March] - Michael Mills
...some rarely-seen birds such as Black-collared Lovebird, Gosling’s Apalis, Red-crowned Malimbe, superb views of Black Spinetail, White-spotted Wattle-eye, Black-necked Wattle-eye, Uganda Woodland Warbler, Forest Penduline Tit, Gabon Batis, Dusky Long-tailed Cuckoo, Rufous-sided Broadbill, Bristle-nosed Barbet, Lowland Sooty Boubou, Fiery-breasted Bushshrike and large flocks of Black-headed Waxbill...
2014 [03 March] - Nik Borrow - Ultimate Cameroon
Cameroon may not be a tour for those who like their creature comforts but it certainly produces a huge bird list and if one intends to only ever visit one western African country then this is surely an essential destination…
2016 [05 May] - Henk Hendriks
...Knowing that Cameroon is probably the number 1 birding destination in Western Africa and having wanted to visit this country already for many years I was immediately interested. So when my brother Frans and Jan Hein van Steenis decided to join us, we had a nice team together and we could start to actually prepare ourselves for this trip...
Places to Stay
Auberge du Ranche de Ngaoundaba
L`auberge du ranche de Ngaoundaba est situee sur les plateaux de l`Adamaoua dans le nord du Cameroun a 34k de la ville de Ngaoundere…
African Bird Club
With a list of over 900 species and a host of endemic and near endemics, Cameroon is a key country for the enthusiastic birder. It is positioned strategically in both West and Central Africa with a wide range of habitats which includes forests, mountains, lakes and desert. As a result, it is a good place to see members of many bird families such as kingfishers, barbets, turacos, bee-eaters, hornbills, greenbuls, sunbirds, shrikes and weavers…
Cameroon Ornithological Club
B-P 13579, Yaounde. + 23720 9366 firstname.lastname@example.org
Cameroon Biodiversity Conservation Society (CBCS)
[The above website carries more details]. The conservation of biological diversity through the protection of birds and natural habitats, as well as the promotion of wildlife study and enjoyment for the benefit of people… P O Box 3055, Messa, Yaoundé, Cameroon. email@example.com
West African Ornithological Society
The West African Ornithological Society grew out of the Nigerian Ornithologists’ Society, which was founded in February 1964. Its object is to promote scientific interest in the birds of West Africa and to further the region’s ornithology, mainly by means of its journal Malimbus (formerly the Bulletin of the Nigerian Ornithologists’ Society). This journal is biannual and bilingual, a unique feature in Africa.The West African Ornithological Society grew out of the Nigerian Ornithologists’ Society, which was founded in February 1964. Its object is to promote scientific interest in the birds of West Africa and to further the region’s ornithology, mainly by means of its journal Malimbus (formerly the Bulletin of the Nigerian Ornithologists’ Society). This journal is biannual and bilingual, a unique feature in Africa.
Limbe Botanical & Zoological Gardens
The Limbe Botanical and Zoological Gardens (LBZG) are internationally recognised as one of the most active gardens in tropical West and Central Africa. It serves as a natural gateway to the Mount Cameroon region, one of the world's biodiversity hotspots….
Korup National Park
Korup National Park, along the western border of Cameroon, contains one of Africa's richest rainforests - an evergreen forest in a region of high, strongly seasonal rainfall…
Systematic list of the birds of the Cameroon from Jan Vermeulen…
There is two species of picathartes : the white-necked one and the grey-necked one. They are fine and slim birds, a little greater than a pigeon…
The Grey-necked Rockfowl
Taxonomic position of genus subject to ongoing debate. Now generally considered to represent a monotypic family, related to “thrush-babbler assemblage” of the Timaliidae; has been suggested that closest relatives are the rockjumpers (Chaetops) of South Africa. May form a superspecies with P. gymnocephalus. Monotypic…..